Date Published: March 4, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Giselle M. Lourenço, Glória R. Soares, Talita P. Santos, Wesley Dáttilo, André V. L. Freitas, Sérvio P. Ribeiro, Manuela Pinzari.
Increasing deforestation worldwide has expanded the interfaces between fragmented forests and non-forest habitats. Human-made edges are very different from the original forest cover, with different microclimatic conditions. Conversely, the natural transitions (i.e., ecotones) are distinct from human-made forest edges. The human-made forest edges are usually sharp associated with disturbances, with abrupt changes in temperature, humidity, luminosity and wind incidence towards the forest interior. However, the natural forest-lake ecotones, even when abrupt, are composed of a complex vegetal physiognomy, with canopy structures close to the ground level and a composition of herbaceous and arboreal species well adapted to this transition range. In the present study, fruit-feeding butterflies were used as models to investigate whether faunal assemblages in natural ecotones are more similar to the forest interior than to the anthropic edges. Butterflies were sampled monthly over one year in the Rio Doce State Park, Southeastern Brazil, following a standardized design using a total of 90 bait traps, in three different forest habitats (forest interior, forest ecotone and anthropic edges), in both canopy and understory. A total of 11,594 individuals from 98 butterfly species were collected (3,151 individuals from 79 species in the forest interior, 4,321 individuals from 87 species in the ecotone and 4,122 individuals from 83 species in the edge). The results indicated that the butterfly richness and diversity were higher in transition areas (ecotones and edges). The ecotone included a combination of butterfly species from the forest interior and from anthropic edges. However, species composition and dominance in the ecotone were similar to the forest interior in both vertical strata. These results suggest that human made forest edges are quite distinct from ecotones. Moreover, ecotones represent unique habitats accommodating species adapted to distinct ecological conditions, while anthropic edges accommodate only opportunistic species from open areas or upper canopies.
Increasing deforestation worldwide has expanded the interfaces between fragmented forests and non-forest habitats (e.g., croplands, pasture, roads and urban areas), and studies of these interfaces dominates the forest ecology literature [1,2]. Human-made edges are very different from the original forest cover, with different microclimatic conditions, including temperature, humidity, wind speed and the amount of solar radiation that penetrates the habitat . These changes in the microclimate can extend into the forest understory and may extend further when the fragments are small . All these edge effects cause changes in the natural community structure, not only in terms of abundance and diversity, but also in the ecological interactions between organisms .
In total, 11,594 individuals from 98 fruit-feeding butterfly species were captured in all habitats and strata during 12 months, with Biblidinae subfamily being the most abundant (5,339 individuals, 46.05%), followed by Satyrinae (3,650 individuals, 31.48%), Charaxinae (2,495 individuals, 21.52%) and Nymphalinae (110 individuals, 0.95%) (S1 Table). Richness estimators showed that 91.9% of the total richness was sampled, which can be considered a good representation of the local assemblage (Table 1). The forest interior registered 3,151 individuals from 79 species (four exclusive species), with nine species predominantly captured in the understory, nine predominantly captured in the canopy and 48 shared between strata. The ecotone registered 4,321 individuals from 87 species (six exclusive species), with 15 species predominantly captured in the understory, only three predominantly captured in the canopy and 59 shared between strata. The edge registered 4,122 individuals from 83 species (six exclusive species), with 16 species predominantly captured in the understory, nine predominantly captured in the canopy and 57 shared between strata. The three habitats shared 70 out of the 98 recorded species (S1 Table).