Research Article: Eryngium Billardieri Induces Apoptosis via Bax Gene Expression in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

Date Published: November 29, 2018

Publisher: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Author(s): Neda Roshanravan, Parina Asgharian, Hassan Dariushnejad, Naimeh Mesri Alamdari, Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Shahriar Alipour, Meisam Barati, Abed Ghavami, Vajihe Ghorbanzadeh, Fatemeh Aamazadeh, Alireza Ostadrahimi.


Purpose: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has a high prevalence all over the world. Most of the therapeutic approaches failed as a result of tumor invasion and rapid metastasis. Several natural plants have been shown to have promising therapeutic effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic activity of Eryngium billardieri against PANC-1 cancer cell lines.

Partial Text

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms across the world, and is associated with the lowest 5-year survival rate.1 According to the GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates, pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 331000 deaths per year, making it the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes together.2 The major barrier to positive clinical outcomes for this type of cancer is delayed diagnosis and resistance to existing malignancy therapeutics.3

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Its highly lethal rate can be attributed to its poor prognosis and despite the advances in surgical intervention and chemotherapy; little effect has been made on the mortality rate of this disease. There is a serious need for complementary therapies with better efficacy. Previous in vitro studies about medicinal plants revealed that different species of Eryngium have demonstrated biological activities including cytotoxic, apoptotic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory.27 The focus of the present work was to investigate the molecular pathways including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of E. billardieri and its antitumor cytotoxic effect.

In conclusion, the results of the current study are the first to indicate that DCM and n-hex extracts of E. billardieri significantly induce apoptosis by increasing Bax and decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA expression. However, more molecular studies for investigating the probable apoptotic pathways of the cytotoxic activity of E. billardieri should be conducted to achieve a definite conclusion.

The authors would like to thank the Nutrition Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

This project has met the principles of the Ethics Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Ethical code: IR.TBZMED. REC. 1396. 618).

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Dimethylthiazole diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay: MTT assay; Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction: qPCR; Bcl2- associated X protein: BAX; Phosphate-buffered saline: PBS; Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: EDTA; Fetal bovine serum: FBS; Dimethyl sulfoxide: DMSO; Diethyl pyrocarbonate: DEPC; half maximal inhibitory concentration: IC50; Cyclin-dependent kinases: Cdks




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