Date Published: December 11, 2009
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Gary Crameri, Shawn Todd, Samantha Grimley, Jennifer A. McEachern, Glenn A. Marsh, Craig Smith, Mary Tachedjian, Carol De Jong, Elena R. Virtue, Meng Yu, Dieter Bulach, Jun-Ping Liu, Wojtek P. Michalski, Deborah Middleton, Hume E. Field, Lin-Fa Wang, Stefan Bereswill. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008266
Abstract: Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions.
Partial Text: There is increasing evidence to indicate that bats play a major role in the emergence and transmission of new and deadly zoonotic viruses . Bats are the putative natural reservoir hosts for a number of emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus (NiV) , Hendra virus (HeV) , severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) ,  and Ebola virus . These agents are among some of the most virulent pathogens to emerge from animal reservoirs and are capable of infecting a broad range of species. The discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) in Chinese horseshoe bats ,  has triggered attempts internationally to isolate a SL-CoV from a variety of bat species. However, this has so far been unsuccessful and attempts to isolate other bat viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been equally difficult. The two bat cell lines available commercially, Tb1-Lu (ATCC number CCL-88, derived from the lung of Tadarida brasiliensis) and Mvi/It (ATCC number CRL-6012, established from a interscapular tumour of Myotis velifer incautus), are of limited value for comprehensive studies since they are not susceptible to infection with viruses of interest (Crameri, G., unpublished results). A greater variety of bat cell lines from a wide range of tissue types is urgently needed for in-depth studies.
With the increasing trend of bat borne viruses crossing the species barrier and causing severe disease in humans and other animals, there is an urgent need for the establishment of cell lines from various bat species to facilitate virus isolation and basic research into virus-host interaction. This is especially important for the study of bat immune responses and their role in maintaining the symbiotic presence of a large number of viruses in bats, apparently without causing clinical disease.