Date Published: November 15, 2016
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Junerlyn Agua-Agum, Archchun Ariyarajah, Bruce Aylward, Luke Bawo, Pepe Bilivogui, Isobel M. Blake, Richard J. Brennan, Amy Cawthorne, Eilish Cleary, Peter Clement, Roland Conteh, Anne Cori, Foday Dafae, Benjamin Dahl, Jean-Marie Dangou, Boubacar Diallo, Christl A. Donnelly, Ilaria Dorigatti, Christopher Dye, Tim Eckmanns, Mosoka Fallah, Neil M. Ferguson, Lena Fiebig, Christophe Fraser, Tini Garske, Lice Gonzalez, Esther Hamblion, Nuha Hamid, Sara Hersey, Wes Hinsley, Amara Jambei, Thibaut Jombart, David Kargbo, Sakoba Keita, Michael Kinzer, Fred Kuti George, Beatrice Godefroy, Giovanna Gutierrez, Niluka Kannangarage, Harriet L. Mills, Thomas Moller, Sascha Meijers, Yasmine Mohamed, Oliver Morgan, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Emily Newton, Pierre Nouvellet, Tolbert Nyenswah, William Perea, Devin Perkins, Steven Riley, Guenael Rodier, Marc Rondy, Maria Sagrado, Camelia Savulescu, Ilana J. Schafer, Dirk Schumacher, Thomas Seyler, Anita Shah, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, C. Samford Wesseh, Zabulon Yoti, Lorenz von Seidlein
Abstract: BackgroundThe ongoing West African Ebola epidemic began in December 2013 in Guinea, probably from a single zoonotic introduction. As a result of ineffective initial control efforts, an Ebola outbreak of unprecedented scale emerged. As of 4 May 2015, it had resulted in more than 19,000 probable and confirmed Ebola cases, mainly in Guinea (3,529), Liberia (5,343), and Sierra Leone (10,746). Here, we present analyses of data collected during the outbreak identifying drivers of transmission and highlighting areas where control could be improved.Methods and FindingsOver 19,000 confirmed and probable Ebola cases were reported in West Africa by 4 May 2015. Individuals with confirmed or probable Ebola (“cases”) were asked if they had exposure to other potential Ebola cases (“potential source contacts”) in a funeral or non-funeral context prior to becoming ill. We performed retrospective analyses of a case line-list, collated from national databases of case investigation forms that have been reported to WHO. These analyses were initially performed to assist WHO’s response during the epidemic, and have been updated for publication.We analysed data from 3,529 cases in Guinea, 5,343 in Liberia, and 10,746 in Sierra Leone; exposures were reported by 33% of cases. The proportion of cases reporting a funeral exposure decreased over time. We found a positive correlation (r = 0.35, p < 0.001) between this proportion in a given district for a given month and the within-district transmission intensity, quantified by the estimated reproduction number (R). We also found a negative correlation (r = −0.37, p < 0.001) between R and the district proportion of hospitalised cases admitted within ≤4 days of symptom onset. These two proportions were not correlated, suggesting that reduced funeral attendance and faster hospitalisation independently influenced local transmission intensity. We were able to identify 14% of potential source contacts as cases in the case line-list. Linking cases to the contacts who potentially infected them provided information on the transmission network. This revealed a high degree of heterogeneity in inferred transmissions, with only 20% of cases accounting for at least 73% of new infections, a phenomenon often called super-spreading. Multivariable regression models allowed us to identify predictors of being named as a potential source contact. These were similar for funeral and non-funeral contacts: severe symptoms, death, non-hospitalisation, older age, and travelling prior to symptom onset. Non-funeral exposures were strongly peaked around the death of the contact. There was evidence that hospitalisation reduced but did not eliminate onward exposures. We found that Ebola treatment units were better than other health care facilities at preventing exposure from hospitalised and deceased individuals. The principal limitation of our analysis is limited data quality, with cases not being entered into the database, cases not reporting exposures, or data being entered incorrectly (especially dates, and possible misclassifications).ConclusionsAchieving elimination of Ebola is challenging, partly because of super-spreading. Safe funeral practices and fast hospitalisation contributed to the containment of this Ebola epidemic. Continued real-time data capture, reporting, and analysis are vital to track transmission patterns, inform resource deployment, and thus hasten and maintain elimination of the virus from the human population.
Partial Text: The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic began in December 2013 in Guinea, probably from a single zoonotic introduction [1,2]. As a result of ineffective initial control efforts, an Ebola outbreak of unprecedented scale emerged. As of 4 May 2015, it had resulted in more than 19,000 probable and confirmed Ebola cases, mainly in Guinea (3,529), Liberia (5,343), and Sierra Leone (10,746) (see section 1.3 in S1 Text for WHO case definitions). Control measures for Ebola are well known and based on past experience [3–6]. However, the lack of local experience in handling Ebola outbreaks coupled with severely limited health care resources and poor coordination in the international response led to an initial failure to prevent exponential spread of the outbreak [7,8]. International partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO), emphasised four interventions : (1) prompt identification and isolation of cases, (2) tracing of contacts, (3) safe and dignified burials, and (4) community awareness and social mobilisation. Following several months of intensive efforts to enhance control measures and local community mobilisation, incidence dramatically fell in all three countries  (Fig 1, top row).
The analyses in this paper draw on 9,711 exposures to potential sources of infection, to provide a quantitative basis for understanding Ebola epidemiology and to validate the choice of interventions used to combat Ebola in the current and future outbreaks. These analyses were initially performed in September/October 2014 as part of the WHO Ebola response during the epidemic and have been updated to be shared with the scientific community.