Date Published: July 24, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Hicham Achebak, Daniel Devolder, Joan Ballester, Jonathan Alan Patz
Abstract: BackgroundAnthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased summer temperatures in Spain by nearly one degree Celsius on average between 1980 and 2015. However, little is known about the extent to which the association between heat and human mortality has been modified. We here investigate whether the observed warming has been associated with an upward trend in excess mortality attributable to heat or, on the contrary, a decrease in the vulnerability to heat has contributed to a reduction of the mortality burden.Methods and findingsWe analysed a dataset from 47 major cities in Spain for the summer months between 1980 and 2015, which included daily temperatures and 554,491 deaths from circulatory and respiratory causes, by sex. We applied standard quasi-Poisson regression models, controlling for seasonality and long-term trends, and estimated the temporal variation in heat-related mortality with time-varying distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs). Results pointed to a reduction in the relative risks of cause-specific and cause-sex mortality across the whole range of summer temperatures. These reductions in turn explained the observed downward trends in heat-attributable deaths, with the only exceptions of respiratory diseases for women and both sexes together. The heat-attributable deaths were consistently higher in women than in men for both circulatory and respiratory causes. The main limitation of our study is that we were not able to account for air pollution in the models because of data unavailability.ConclusionsDespite the summer warming observed in Spain between 1980 and 2015, the decline in the vulnerability of the population has contributed to a general downward trend in overall heat-attributable mortality. This reduction occurred in parallel with a decline in the vulnerability difference between men and women for circulatory and cardiorespiratory mortality. Despite these advances, the risk of death remained high for respiratory diseases, and particularly in women.
Partial Text: Anthropogenic climate change represents a major threat for human health and a challenge for public health services . One of its most important effects is the potential increase in heat-related mortality resulting from rising temperatures and the associated increase in the frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme heat events [2,3]. However, the extent of this impact will not only depend on the increase in the level of exposure to heat but also on any underlying change in the vulnerability of the exposed population .
We analysed data from 47 major cities representing about 32% of the total Spanish population, which includes 544,491 summer deaths, corresponding to the period 1980–2015. Circulatory counts represented 78.9% of the total cardiorespiratory mortality (here the word ‘cardiorespiratory’ is used to refer to deaths from circulatory and respiratory deaths together), while respiratory deaths accounted for the remaining 21.1%. The temporal pattern of each cause of death was similar in men and women (S2 Fig), with a decline in the number of deaths from circulatory diseases and an increase in the number of deaths from respiratory diseases. Nevertheless, mortality decreased at a slower pace in women for circulatory diseases, therefore increasing the magnitude of the difference between women and men. Moreover, for respiratory diseases, mortality increased at a faster pace in women, therefore reducing the magnitude of the difference between women and men. The geographic distribution of the cities included in the analysis, along with the corresponding evolution in overall summer mean temperature, are displayed in Fig 1. As expected, summer temperatures have been increasing, on average, at a rate of 0.32°C per decade.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that comprehensively addresses the eventual impact of recent climate warming on summer mortality in Spain by cause of death and sex. The study pointed to a strong reduction in cause-specific and cause-sex mortality RR associated with summer temperatures for the last three and a half decades and, with the exception of respiratory diseases (for men and women together, and for women only), downward trends in heat-attributable deaths. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the observed warming trend in summer temperatures in Spain has not been paralleled by a general increase in the mortality fraction attributable to heat, as a result of substantial decline in population vulnerability to warm temperatures .