Research Article: High Prevalence of Human Parvovirus 4 Infection in HBV and HCV Infected Individuals in Shanghai

Date Published: January 3, 2012

Publisher: Public Library of Science

Author(s): Xuelian Yu, Jing Zhang, Liang Hong, Jiayu Wang, Zhengan Yuan, Xi Zhang, Reena Ghildyal, Cristina Costa.


Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been detected in blood and diverse tissues samples from HIV/AIDS patients who are injecting drug users. Although B19 virus, the best characterized human parvovirus, has been shown to co-infect patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus (HBV, HCV) infection, the association of PARV4 with HBV or HCV infections is still unknown.

Partial Text

Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a DNA virus belonging to the Parvoviridae family, and was first identified in 2005 [1]. PARV4 consists of two genotypes sharing 95% nucleotide identity, with the original PARV4 being classified into genotype 1 and the newly discovered PARV5 into genotype 2. Parvoviridae also includes B19, the first described human parvovirus, which causes erythema infectiosum and the recently described human Bocavirus (HboV) which is associated with lower respiratory tract infections.

Previous studies have suggested a significant correlation between HBV and B19 co-infection [10], [11]. PARV4 was originally detected in a HBV infected patient raising the possibility of an association with HBV infection as has been described for B19 [1], [12]. To determine the association of PARV4 infection with HBV and HCV infection, we investigated the molecular prevalence of PARV4 in healthy individuals, HBV-infected subjects and HCV-infected subjects in Shanghai.