Date Published: March 27, 2018
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Author(s): Bang-Xiao Zheng, Muhammad Ibrahim, Ding-Peng Zhang, Qing-Fang Bi, Hong-Zhe Li, Guo-Wei Zhou, Kai Ding, Josep Peñuelas, Yong-Guan Zhu, Xiao-Ru Yang.
The ability to solubilize fixed inorganic phosphorus (P) for plant growth is important for increasing crop yield. More P can be released by inoculating soil with inorganic-phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (iPSBs). We used 96-well microplates instead of traditional 200-mm petri dishes to rapidly screen iPSB strains for their solubilizing ability. We simultaneously obtained 76 iPSB isolates from 576 wells containing two agricultural soils. This method conveniently identified positive iPSB strains and effectively prevented fungal cross-contamination. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees of the isolated strains showed that Bacillus megaterium was the most dominant iPSB, and strains Y99, Y95, Y924 and Y1412 were selected as representatives for the analysis of P solubilization. Succinic acid was the main organic acid of B. megaterium for releasing P. It was strongly correlated with the increase in soluble P concentration during 168 h of incubation of these four strains. pH was negatively exponentially correlated with the amount of soluble P in the medium, and the amount of succinic acid was strongly linearly correlated with the amount of P released (P < 0.001), suggesting that organic acid may mobilize microbial P. Our study provides an efficient and effective method for identifying and analyzing the growth of iPSB strains able to solubilize inorganic P and gives a better understanding of the mechanism of P solubilization.
Phosphorus (P), a non-renewable macronutrient, plays an essential role in plants (Elser et al. 2007). Inorganic P is mined to produce chemical P fertilizers that are extensively applied to cropland (Elser and Bennett 2011; Penuelas et al. 2013). The majority of soluble inorganic P, however, is rapidly immobilized by soil fixation and becomes unavailable for plant uptake, leading to low P-use efficiency and potentially excess P (Kochian 2012). Soil P must thus be managed to minimize its loss and increase its use efficiency.
Current agricultural practices tend to use sustainable technology, including the use of biofertilizers with multiple functions, to achieve high crop yields, which requires high soluble-P concentrations. iPSBs thus play an essential role in releasing P from soil-fixation systems and in preserving enough free phosphate in the rhizosphere for plant uptake and growth. iPSB inoculation can promote plant growth (Kaur and Reddy 2015; Yu et al. 2012), so identifying highly efficient iPSB strains thus becomes important. Our rapid screening using 96-well microplates provided an efficient method for simultaneously isolating numerous iPSB strains. The method isolated 76 positive iPSB strains within 72 h from two soils with three replicates. Each well has limited space, so only a single bacterial strain may survive if the sample is sufficiently diluted. Each well in our study contained a sole iPSB strain with a 105 dilution of soil sample from two remote sites with different chemical properties, which was verified by incubation on 200-mm medium plates (Fig. 2), suggesting that further purification by a second or third colony transfer may not be needed. Positive iPSB strains were also easy to observe and count using bromocresol purple as an indicator.