Date Published: March 20, 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Welcome M. Wami, Norman Nausch, Nicholas Midzi, Reggis Gwisai, Takafira Mduluza, Mark Woolhouse, Francisca Mutapi, Amadou Garba. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003649
Abstract: BackgroundSeveral studies have been conducted quantifying the impact of schistosome infections on health and development in school-aged children. In contrast, relatively little is known about morbidity levels in preschool-aged children (≤5 years) who have been neglected in terms of schistosome research and control. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of available point-of-care (POC) morbidity diagnostic tools in preschool versus primary school-aged children (6–10 years) and determine markers which can be used in the field to identify and quantify Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity.Methods/Principal FindingsA comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the performance of currently available POC morbidity diagnostic tools on Zimbabwean children aged 1–5 years (n=104) and 6–10 years (n=194). Morbidity was determined using the POC diagnostics questionnaire-based reporting of haematuria and dysuria, clinical examination, urinalysis by dipsticks, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Attributable fractions were used to quantify the proportion of morbidity attributable to S. haematobium infection. Based on results of attributable fractions, UACR was identified as the most reliable tool for detecting schistosome-related morbidity, followed by dipsticks, visual urine inspection, questionnaires, and lastly clinical examination. The results of urine dipstick attributes showed that proteinuria and microhaematuria accounted for most differences between schistosome egg-positive and negative children (T=-50.1; p<0.001). These observations were consistent in preschool vs. primary school-aged children.Conclusions/SignificancePreschool-aged children in endemic areas can be effectively screened for schistosome-related morbidity using the same currently available diagnostic tools applicable to older children. UACR for detecting albuminuria is recommended as the best choice for rapid assessment of morbidity attributed to S. haematobium infection in children in the field. The use of dipstick microhaematuria and proteinuria as additional indicators of schistosome-related morbidity would improve the estimation of disease burden in young children.
Partial Text: Urogenital schistosomiasis is a major parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium affecting children in Africa, with negative impacts on child health, growth and cognitive development . Chronic infection with the parasite can cause anaemia, malnutrition, and organ complications such as bladder fibrosis and kidney failure . Schistosome control programmes focus on preventive chemotherapy with the antihelminthic drug of choice, praziquantel, to reduce or prevent the development of severe morbidity due to schistosome infection, and thereby improving health of the infected individuals and communities . In order to achieve these goals and evaluate the effects of control programmes, an understanding of the morbidity due to schistosome infection is essential . This requires the use of reliable rapid diagnostic tools that can be used in the field .
Until recently, most schistosome control programmes in Africa aimed at reducing development of severe morbidity and improving child health have focused on regular school-based deworming strategies, targeting children above five years old [22–24]. By focusing treatment upon the school-aged population, children of preschool-age have been previously neglected in terms of research and control . Consequently, less is known about the levels of schistosome-related morbidity in this age-group. Furthermore, research studies evaluating the performance of the current POC markers of schistosome-related morbidity in children aged five years and below are still limited . Estimation of disease burden due to schistosome infections in children has been further complicated by the fact that signs and symptoms commonly associated with schistosomiasis can also be due to other causes . In the absence of a gold standard POC morbidity diagnostic technique, several methods have been used in studies from different endemic settings in older children (≥6 years) and adult populations . Our study focused on the tools used in the field; the WHO approved questionnaire-based reporting of haematuria and dysuria, clinical examination by qualified clinicians, routinely used dipstick tests measuring several urine attributes, and UACR (for detecting albuminuria) which has previously been evaluated for schistosome morbidity detection . We investigated how these tools performed in preschool-aged children (1–5 years) compared to primary school-aged children (6–10 years), who are the current targets of schistosome control programmes.