Date Published: August 27, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Lieven Huybregts, Agnes Le Port, Elodie Becquey, Amanda Zongrone, Francisco M. Barba, Rahul Rawat, Jef L. Leroy, Marie T. Ruel, Lars Åke Persson
Abstract: BackgroundCommunity-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) has been widely adopted to treat childhood acute malnutrition (AM), but its effectiveness in program settings is often limited by implementation constraints, low screening coverage, and poor treatment uptake and adherence. This study addresses the problem of low screening coverage by testing the impact of distributing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) at monthly screenings held by community health volunteers (CHVs). Screening sessions included behavior change communication (BCC) on nutrition, health, and hygiene practices (both study arms) and SQ-LNSs (one study arm). Impact was assessed on AM screening and treatment coverage and on AM incidence and prevalence.Methods and findingsA two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial in 48 health center catchment areas in the Bla and San health districts in Mali was conducted from February 2015 to April 2017. In both arms, CHVs led monthly AM screenings in children 6–23 months of age and provided BCC to caregivers. The intervention arm also received a monthly supply of SQ-LNSs to stimulate caregivers’ participation and supplement children’s diet. We used two study designs: i) a repeated cross-sectional study (n = approximately 2,300) with baseline and endline surveys to examine impacts on AM screening and treatment coverage and prevalence (primary study outcomes) and ii) a longitudinal study of children enrolled at 6 months of age (n = 1,132) and followed monthly for 18 months to assess impact on AM screening and treatment coverage and incidence (primary study outcomes). All analyses were done by intent to treat. The intervention significantly increased AM screening coverage (cross-sectional study: +40 percentage points [pp], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 32, 49, p < 0.001; longitudinal study: +28 pp, 95% CI: 23, 33, p < 0.001). No impact on treatment coverage or AM prevalence was found. Children in the intervention arm, however, were 29% (95% CI: 8, 46; p = 0.017) less likely to develop a first AM episode (incidence) and, compared to children in comparison arm, their overall risk of AM (longitudinal prevalence) was 30% (95% CI: 12, 44; p = 0.002) lower. The intervention lowered CMAM enrollment by 10 pp (95% CI: 1.9, 18; p = 0.016), an unintended negative impact likely due to CHVs handing out preventive SQ-LNSs to caregivers of AM children instead of referring them to the CMAM program. Study limitations were i) the referral of AM cases by our research team (for ethical reasons) during monthly measurements in the longitudinal study might have interfered with usual CMAM activities and ii) the outcomes presented by child age also reflect seasonal variations because of the closed cohort design.ConclusionsIncorporating SQ-LNSs into monthly community-level AM screenings and BCC sessions was highly effective at improving screening coverage and reducing AM incidence, but it did not improve AM prevalence or treatment coverage. Future evaluation and implementation research on CMAM should carefully assess and tackle the remaining barriers that prevent AM cases from being correctly diagnosed, referred, and adequately treated.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT02323815.
Partial Text: Globally, an estimated 52 million children suffer from acute malnutrition (AM) . AM dramatically increases the risk of death; compared to well-nourished children, children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are 3.4 times more likely to die, and this probability increases to a staggering 11.6 times in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) . Child AM is the underlying cause for an estimated annual 875,000 deaths of children under 5 years of age, representing about 12.6% of all deaths in this age group worldwide .
The study protocol was published previously . We present a summary of the methods here.
Incorporating SQ-LNS distribution into monthly AM screenings and BCC sessions using a community-level platform had a large positive impact on AM screening coverage and reduced AM incidence in Mali. The intervention, however, had no impact on AM prevalence or treatment coverage.