Date Published: August 21, 2007
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Abdisalan M Noor, Abdinasir A Amin, Willis S Akhwale, Robert W Snow, Sanjeev Krishna
Abstract: BackgroundInexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups.Methods and FindingsWe undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0–4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni) annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004), the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005), and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006). The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281); 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131), and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000). The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial social marketing favoured the least poor.ConclusionsRapid scaling up of ITN coverage among Africa’s poorest rural children can be achieved through mass distribution campaigns. These efforts must form an important adjunct to regular, routine access to ITNs through clinics, and each complimentary approach should aim to make this intervention free to clients to ensure equitable access among those least able to afford even the cost of a heavily subsidized net.
Partial Text: The gulf between levels of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and access to simple, cost-effective interventions known to significantly reduce mortality is immoral . For over ten years it has been known that insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) can reduce childhood mortality by 17% . In 1998 the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) movement was launched with one of its primary objectives to increase ITN coverage among vulnerable groups, such as children and pregnant women, to over 60% . RBM has recently revised this ITN objective to reach 80% coverage by 2010 . This change in target followed the RBM publication of the current status of ITN coverage in Africa as part of its World Malaria Report . Of 34 malaria-endemic countries in Africa providing recent national data, only one (Eritrea) had achieved ITN coverage among children aged less than 5 y of more than 60% . Reasons for this dismal progress has been the subject of much debate [6–9] and largely centre around divergent views on optimal strategies to deliver ITNs to economically and biologically vulnerable groups across Africa.
A total of 2,761 homesteads were selected across the 72 rural communities located in the four districts in 2004. Three homesteads refused participation in 2004 (0.01%); 11,050 observations of children under the age of 5 y were made across the three survey years in 2004/5, 2005/6, and 2006/7. Over the three years, 155 (1.4%) usually resident children were visiting elsewhere at the time of the annual surveys, 66 (0.6%) children’s parents or guardians refused to be interviewed and 133 (1.2%) children died before the census rounds in 2005/6 and 2006/7.
We have shown that a concerted, multi-pronged approach to ITN delivery in rural areas of Kenya over 3 y resulted in over 60% of children sleeping under a net treated with insecticide, surpassing the original RBM target set in Abuja in 2000 . However, at the end of 2004 this target seemed almost unattainable, with only 7% of rural children reported to be sleeping under an ITN and only 3% among the poorest sectors of these communities. Radical changes in bilateral support to PSI to adapt their social marketing strategy to included MCH clinics resulted in important changes in ITN coverage (24%) by the end of 2005, but coverage still favoured the least poor children. The most dramatic increases in ITN coverage were seen during the last year of the surveillance period at the end of 2006. Through two single mass campaigns in July and September 2006, coverage of ITN use rose to over 67% and was particularly successful at reaching the poorest children (Tables 1 and 2). The concentration index of ITN coverage, which is a measure of inequality, decreased from 0.281 in 2004/5 to 0.000 in 2006/7, indicating an absence of inequality in net use (Figures 1 and 2; Table 1) coincidental with the expansion in different mechanisms of delivery.