Date Published: April 6, 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Junya Wei, Guoyin Liu, Debing Liu, Yeyuan Chen, Manuel Joaquín Reigosa.
Although being one of the few drought-tolerant plants, mango trees are irrigated to ensure optimum and consistent productivity in China. In order to better understand the effects of soil water content on mango yield and fruit quality at fruit growth stage, irrigation experiments were investigated and the object was to determine the soil water content criteria at which growth and quality of mango would be optimal based on soil water measured by RHD-JS water-saving irrigation system through micro-sprinkling irrigation. Five soil water content treatments (relative to the percentage of field water capacity) for irrigation (T1:79%-82%, T2:75%-78%, T3:71%-74%, T4: 65%-70%, T5:63%-66%) were compared in 2013. Amount of applied irrigation water for different treatments varied from 2.93m3 to 1.08 m3. The results showed that mango fruit production and quality at fruit growth stage were significantly affected under different irrigation water amounts. Variation in soil water content not only had effects on fruit size, but also on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield and irrigation water use efficiency were obtained from the T4 treatment. Irrigation water amount also affected fruit quality parameters like fruit total soluble solids, soluble sugar, starch, titratable acid and vitamin C content. Comprehensive evaluation of the effect of indexs of correlation on irrigation treatment by subordinate function showed that when the soil moisture content were controlled at about 65–70% of the field water moisture capacity, water demand in the growth and development of mango could be ensured, and maximum production efficiency of irrigation and the best quality of fruit could be achieved. In conclusion, treatment T4 was the optimum irrigation schedule for growing mango, thus achieving efficient production of mango in consideration of the compromise among mango yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency.
Worldwide population growth and land use expansion in crops have increased pressure on the availability of water dramatically in the future. Water deficit is the most pervasive impact environmental stress on crop productivity which limits the economical development, especially in China. The increasing water shortage has caused us to investigate the sustainable use of irrigation water. The specific effective water-saving irrigation techniques without detrimentally affecting crop production need to be developed urgently and will be one of the main goals in agricultural production. Micro-sprinkling irrigation has the advantages of both dripping and sprinkling irrigation, when combined with appropriate irrigation schedule, it can effectively reduce water consumption, increase yields and agronomic water use efficiency under conditions of water scarcity [1–3].
Water resource scarcity worldwide makes it necessary to understand the effects of water use reduction in more efficient and competitive crop irrigation. Even though mango is a drought-resistant crop, fruit tree production plays an important role and the efficient use of water resources is mandatory. Cell enlargement and division need adequate water during fruit growth and development period, while lack of water inhibited fruit growth and development . Most of the mango fruit development of natural mango fruits takes place during the dry season and farmers have to irrigate mango trees to ensure high yields and good quality. So soil water management is one of the most important factors for enhancing the yield and quality of mango fruit. In order to achieve more precise management of regulated irrigation in mango production, a better understanding of quantitative relationship between mango yield, fruit quality and water use would be required. The effects of different soil water content on the (Mangifera indica. cv. Guifei) mango fruit growth and quality were studied by measuring soil moisture change with soil moisture sensor of RHD-JS in this article. Information about relationship between mango yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency is useful for efficient irrigation management.
In summary, the results for the study period showed that differences in fruit yield and quality production between different irrigation treatments were insignificant. However, the T4 treatment produced significant increases in the average fruit weight, diameter and length and significant increases of the soluble protein and titratable acid in relation to the other treatments. Irrigation of mango plantations is necessary to ensure high fruit yields and a favorable fruit size distribution. Comprehensive evaluation of the correlation on irrigation treatment by subordinate function shows that, when the soil moisture content is controlled at about 65–70% of the field water moisture capacity, water demand in the growth and development of mango can be ensured, and maximum production efficiency of irrigation and the best quality of fruit can be achieved. From these studies, we conclude that T4 treatment, 65%-70% of field water capacity, can promote fruit growth and development and improve fruit internal quality.