Date Published: August 28, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Joshua A. Bell, David Carslake, Kaitlin H. Wade, Rebecca C. Richmond, Ryan J. Langdon, Emma E. Vincent, Michael V. Holmes, Nicholas J. Timpson, George Davey Smith, Daniel J. Rader
Abstract: BackgroundEarlier puberty is widely linked with future obesity and cardiometabolic disease. We examined whether age at puberty onset likely influences adiposity and cardiometabolic traits independent of childhood adiposity.Methods and findingsOne-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses were conducted on up to 3,611 white-European female and male offspring from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited at birth via mothers between 1 April 1991 and 31 December 1992. Time-sensitive exposures were age at menarche and age at voice breaking. Outcomes measured at age 18 y were body mass index (BMI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–based fat and lean mass indices, blood pressure, and 230 cardiometabolic traits derived from targeted metabolomics (150 concentrations plus 80 ratios from nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] spectroscopy covering lipoprotein subclasses of cholesterol and triglycerides, amino acids, inflammatory glycoproteins, and others). Adjustment was made for pre-pubertal BMI measured at age 8 y. For negative control MR analyses, BMI and cardiometabolic trait measures taken at age 8 y (before puberty, and which therefore cannot be an outcome of puberty itself) were used. For replication analyses, 2-sample MR was conducted using summary genome-wide association study data on up to 322,154 adults for post-pubertal BMI, 24,925 adults for post-pubertal NMR cardiometabolic traits, and 13,848 children for pre-pubertal obesity (negative control). Like observational estimates, 1-sample MR estimates in ALSPAC using 351 polymorphisms for age at menarche (explaining 10.6% of variance) among 2,053 females suggested that later age at menarche (per year) was associated with −1.38 kg/m2 of BMI at age 18 y (or −0.34 SD units, 95% CI −0.46, −0.23; P = 9.77 × 10−09). This coefficient attenuated 10-fold upon adjustment for BMI at age 8 y, to −0.12 kg/m2 (or −0.03 SDs, 95% CI −0.13, 0.07; P = 0.55). Associations with blood pressure were similar, but associations across other traits were small and inconsistent. In negative control MR analyses, later age at menarche was associated with −0.77 kg/m2 of pre-pubertal BMI measured at age 8 y (or −0.39 SDs, 95% CI −0.50, −0.29; P = 6.28 × 10−13), indicating that variants influencing menarche also influence BMI before menarche. Cardiometabolic trait associations were weaker and less consistent among males and both sexes combined. Higher BMI at age 8 y (per 1 kg/m2 using 95 polymorphisms for BMI explaining 3.4% of variance) was associated with earlier menarche among 2,648 females (by −0.26 y, 95% CI −0.37, −0.16; P = 1.16 × 10−06), likewise among males and both sexes combined. In 2-sample MR analyses using 234 polymorphisms and inverse variance weighted (IVW) regression, each year later age at menarche was associated with −0.81 kg/m2 of adult BMI (or −0.17 SD units, 95% CI −0.21, −0.12; P = 4.00 × 10−15). Associations were weaker with cardiometabolic traits. Using 202 polymorphisms, later menarche was associated with lower odds of childhood obesity (IVW-based odds ratio = 0.52 per year later, 95% CI 0.48, 0.57; P = 6.64 × 10−15). Study limitations include modest sample sizes for 1-sample MR, lack of inference to non-white-European populations, potential selection bias through modest completion rates of puberty questionnaires, and likely disproportionate measurement error of exposures by sex. The cardiometabolic traits examined were heavily lipid-focused and did not include hormone-related traits such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors.ConclusionsOur results suggest that puberty timing has a small influence on adiposity and cardiometabolic traits and that preventive interventions should instead focus on reducing childhood adiposity.
Partial Text: The onset of puberty is pivotal for human growth and development [1–3]. Beyond immediate effects on physical and sexual maturity, however, earlier onset of puberty is widely linked with adverse health outcomes in adulthood. These include greater risk of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidaemia , type 2 diabetes , hypertension , coronary heart disease , and early mortality . Whether puberty timing is a concern for cardiometabolic health in populations, however, depends on whether it is truly causal. Higher adiposity in childhood may induce an earlier puberty  and track forward into adulthood [9–13], making it an important potential confounder. Prospective studies of puberty timing in relation to cardiometabolic outcomes tend not to account for differences in pre-pubertal adiposity [14,15], and the few studies that do often find substantial attenuation of puberty–outcome associations [4,16,17]. No studies to our knowledge have yet examined puberty timing in relation to detailed traits from targeted metabolomics in adulthood, and, importantly, evidence has so far been observational, with inherent susceptibilities to residual confounding.
We sought in this study to determine whether puberty timing is likely to have a distinct influence on adiposity and cardiometabolic traits in adulthood. To do this, we used both observational and genetically informed methods, which together allow more reliable inference on causality than previously possible. Our results suggest that apparent effects of puberty timing on adiposity and cardiometabolic traits in adulthood are largely confounded by pre-pubertal adiposity and are not likely driven by puberty timing itself. Strong evidence was also found for an effect of higher pre-pubertal adiposity on earlier age at puberty onset. These findings together point to childhood adiposity as a primary intervention target.