Date Published: February 16, 2017
Publisher: AIMS Press
Author(s): Nguyen Thanh Ha, Le Thi Thu Ha, Luu Quoc Toan.
This article aims to describe the knowledge, attitude, frequency and level of consumption regarding non-alcoholic carbonated soft drinks (NCSD) among students from two high schools in Hanoi.
A cross-sectional survey including a semi-quantitative food frequency were conducted with 620 students from two high schools, one in the urban area and the other in the rural area of Hanoi city.
Data on knowledge of health risk associated with the consumption of NCSD showed neagtive results (only 11.9% of the students were able to identify all the contents of NCSD correctly, and 2.7% knew all eight health risks due to consumption of NCSD). Besides, 31.4% of all students did not have the intention to quit NCSD despite being aware of health risks associated with the consumption of NCSD. Students who reported consuming NCSD within one month prior to the study constituted 83.1%, and those who consumed NCSD 1–2 times/week accounted for the highest proportion, being 21.3%. On average, each student consumed 2,094 ml NCSD within one month prior to the study. Suburban students and male students consumed more than urban and female ones, respectively (p < 0.01). Students should be equipped with information about NCSD related health risks and encouraged to consume less NCSD.
The consumption of NCSD is prevalent among youngsters worldwide ,. NCSD contain saturated carbon dioxide, sweeteners, and other ingredients such as flavor enhancers, salts, additives and preservatives . In 1997, each person in the world consumed approximately 36 liters of NCSD a year, and the consumption level increased to 43 liters in 2010 . According to a report on the trend of NCSD consumption among Americans in 2012, American families consumed three types of NCSD a week, and 62% of American adults drank at least one type of NCSD every two weeks. Besides, 49% of the NCSD was consumed at lunch while 31% at dinner . A study in Australia indicated that the daily amount of NCSD consumed per capita increased by age. Particularly, children aged 2–3 years drank 53 ml as opposed to 364 ml consumed by those aged 16–18 years. In the latter group, a male drank 480 ml compared to 240 ml by a female .
In total 620 students from two schools participated in the study. The study population consisted 43.5% males and 56.5% females; this ratio was relatively conistent among 10th, 11th and 12th grades. Most students (77.6%) thought their households had a middle-level income, and urban students from middle-income households out numbered those from suburban areas (81.7% vs. 73.6%). The mean weight of male students was 57.1 kg compared to 48.3 kg in female students. Male students from the urban area had greater weight than those from the suburban area, and this was also true in the case of female students (p < 0.05). Malnourished students accounted for 5.2%, and students from both schools who suffered from overweight and obesity made up 7.7%; the rate of overweight and obesity in urban area was three times higher than that in the suburban one (11.9% vs. 3.9%) (p < 0.05). The rate of parents in the urban area who had education level of high school and above exceeded that of those in the suburban area (p > 0.05). Detailed information is presented in Table 1.
Very few epidemiological studies on knowledge and attitude toward NCSD have been done in Vietnam. In review literature relevant to this study, the research team did not find any study on such knowledge and attitude but a small number of reports and articles on the habit of NCSD consumption and NCSD market ,,.
Most students consumed NCSD within one month prior to the study, but the rate of students with daily consumption of NCSD was not high; the consumption of NCSD among suburban students was higher than that among urban ones, and male students consumed larger amount of NCSD than did female ones. Students from both school had limited knowledge of and unfavorable attitude towards NCSD. Therefore, communication and raising the awareness of students are necessary to reduce health risks when consuming NCSD. Families and schools shall be an important channel of communication and education in minimizing the consumption of NCSD. There is a need of further studies at alarger and deeper scale regarding NCSD consumption and health risks associated with NCSD consumption in the Vietnamese population.