Research Article: Management of Crystallization Kinetics for Efficient and Stable Low‐Dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper (LDRP) Lead‐Free Perovskite Solar Cells

Date Published: November 10, 2018

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Author(s): Jian Qiu, Yingdong Xia, Yonghua Chen, Wei Huang.


Low‐dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper (LDRP) lead‐free perovskite has great potential due to its improved stability and oriented crystal growth, which is mainly attributed to the effective control of crystallization kinetics. However, the crystallization kinetics of LDRP lead‐free perovskite films are highly limited by Lewis theory. Here, the management of the crystallization kinetics of LDRP tin (Sn) perovskite films jointly controlled by Lewis adducts and the ion exchange process using a mixture of polar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ion liquid solvent methylammonium acetate (MAAc) (the process named as “L‐I”) is demonstrated. Homogeneous nucleated LDRP Sn perovskite films with average grain size close to 9 µm are achieved. Both low electron and hole defect density with a magnitude of 1016, high carrier mobility, and excellent electrical performance are obtained. As a result, the LDRP Sn perovskite solar cell (PSC) with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.03% is achieved using a simple one‐step method without antisolvents, which is one of the best LDRP Sn PSCs. Most importantly, the PSC exhibits excellent stability with no degradation in PCE after 94 d in a nitrogen atmosphere owing to the high‐quality film and the inhibition of the oxidation of Sn2+.

Partial Text

Materials and Preparation of BAI and MAAc: PEDPT:PSS (Clevious PVP. AL 4083) was purchased from Heraeus‐(Deutschland GmBH & Co. KG) Inc. PCBM was purchased from Xi’an Polymer Light Technology Corp. Tin iodide (SnI2, purity ≥99.999%) was purchased from Alfa Aesar and tin fluoride (SnF2, purity >95%) was purchased from Sigam Aldrich. Methylammonium chloride (CH3NH3Cl, purity>99%) was purchased from Shanghai MaterWin New Materials Co. Ltd. DMSO, n‐butylamine, hydroiodic acid (HI) (57 wt% in water), and acetic acid (HAc) (99%) were got from Sigma‐Aldrich. Methylamine (MA, 33% in water) was purchased from Energy Chemical.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.




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