Date Published: February 8, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Hyunuk Kim, Inho Hong, Woo-Sung Jung, Jefferson Stafusa Elias Portela.
In the era of big science, countries allocate big research and development budgets to large scientific facilities that boost collaboration and research capability. A nuclear fusion device called the “tokamak” is a source of great interest for many countries because it ideally generates sustainable energy expected to solve the energy crisis in the future. Here, to explore the scientific effects of tokamaks, we map a country’s research capability in nuclear fusion research with normalized revealed comparative advantage on five topical clusters—material, plasma, device, diagnostics, and simulation—detected through a dynamic topic model. Our approach captures not only the growth of China, India, and the Republic of Korea but also the decline of Canada, Japan, Sweden, and the Netherlands. Time points of their rise and fall are related to tokamak operation, highlighting the importance of large facilities in big science. The gravity model points out that two countries collaborate less in device, diagnostics, and plasma research if they have comparative advantages in different topics. This relation is a unique feature of nuclear fusion compared to other science fields. Our results can be used and extended when building national policies for big science.
Big science is characterized by its big budgets, manpower, and machines. It includes a number of multidisciplinary fields such as nuclear fusion, particle accelerators, and space science . Most of them originated for military reasons in World War II and were mainly led by superpowers. In recent decades, as these fields become more demanding, countries actively collaborate to utilize the resources of others and build shared infrastructure [2–4]. In this sense, compared to little science, big science requires more international collaboration and resource accessibility .
Large facilities and international collaboration, two core components of big science, were investigated with bibliographic data, the dynamic topic model, and revealed comparative advantage. In this study, we chose nuclear fusion for a case study. Word similarity between topics unfolded the knowledge structure of nuclear fusion comprising five multidisciplinary topical clusters: material, plasma, device, diagnostics, and simulation. Different countries have different comparative advantages over these clusters. The time points that the comparative advantage trend changes match well with tokamak operation. Catching-up countries that have built their own tokamaks have developed their research capability while countries that do not operate a tokamak miss their productivity.