Date Published: December 28, 2012
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Colleen F. Kelley, Eli S. Rosenberg, Brandon M. O’Hara, Paula M. Frew, Travis Sanchez, John L. Peterson, Carlos del Rio, Patrick S. Sullivan, Rupert Kaul. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053284
Various metrics for HIV burden and treatment success [e.g. HIV prevalence, community viral load (CVL), population viral load (PVL), percent of HIV-positive persons with undetectable viral load] have important public health limitations for understanding disparities.
Using data from an ongoing HIV incidence cohort of black and white men who have sex with men (MSM), we propose a new metric to measure the prevalence of those at risk of transmitting HIV and illustrate its value. MSM with plasma VL>400 copies/mL were defined as having ‘transmission risk’. We calculated HIV prevalence, CVL, PVL, percent of HIV-positive with undetectable viral loads, and prevalence of plasma VL>400 copies/ml (%VL400) for black and white MSM. We used Monte Carlo simulation incorporating data on sexual mixing by race to estimate exposure of black and white HIV-negative MSM to a partner with transmission risk via unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Of 709 MSM recruited, 42% (168/399) black and 14% (44/310) white MSM tested HIV-positive (p<.0001). No significant differences were seen in CVL, PVL, or percent of HIV positive with undetectable viral loads. The %VL400 was 25% (98/393) for black vs. 8% (25/310) for white MSM (p<.0001). Black MSM with 2 UAI partners were estimated to have 40% probability (95% CI: 35%, 45%) of having ≥1 UAI partner with transmission risk vs. 20% for white MSM (CI: 15%, 24%). Despite similarities in other metrics, black MSM in our cohort are three times as likely as white MSM to have HIV transmission risk. With comparable risk behaviors, HIV-negative black MSM have a substantially higher likelihood of encountering a UAI partner at risk of transmitting HIV. Our results support increasing HIV testing, linkage to care, and antiretroviral treatment of HIV-positive MSM to reduce prevalence of those with transmission risk, particularly for black MSM.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to account for the largest risk group in the US for HIV incidence, accounting for 61% of new HIV infections in 2009 . Marked racial disparities seen throughout the HIV epidemic in the US are also present among MSM . Among MSM recruited in venues in 21 US cities, seroprevalence among black respondents was 28% versus 16% among non-Hispanic whites . Examination of differences in individual risk behavior or substance abuse have not explained this disparity; black MSM have lower numbers of casual sex partners, and comparable levels of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and drug use . Black MSM do have more sexually transmitted infections, are less likely to be aware of their HIV status, and HIV-positive MSM are less likely to be on anti-retroviral therapy (ART); but differences in incarceration history and circumcision status have not been associated with HIV infection among black and white MSM –. A complete understanding of disparities will allow for the appropriate design and implementation of HIV prevention interventions and is crucial to reduce HIV incidence among MSM.
Through June 2012, 399 black and 310 white MSM have enrolled into the InvolveMENt study. The baseline prevalence of HIV was 42% (95% CI: 37%, 47%) for black MSM and 14% (95% CI: 11%, 19%) for white MSM (p<.0001). Annual HIV incidence among prospectively-followed participants (365 total person-years) was 6.4% for black MSM (10 seroconversions; 95% CI: 3.1%, 11.8%) and 1.0% for white MSM (2 seroconversions; 95% CI: 0.1%, 3.5%). A description of MSM included in this analysis is presented in Table 1. White men in our study were significantly older, had a higher education status, and earned more money than black men. In addition, white men reported significantly more male sexual partners in the previous 12 months and more unprotected anal intercourse than black men. Our data show that despite similarities between black and white MSM in CVL, PVL, the percentage of HIV positive men with undetectable viral loads, and significant differences in awareness of HIV infection, black MSM are 3 times as likely as white MSM to have HIV transmission risk. Because of patterns of racial concordance of sexual partnerships, these differences in transmission risk may drive greater risk of HIV exposure for black MSM, despite similar levels of sexual risk behaviors. Although black MSM who have UAI do not have more UAI partners than white MSM, at observed 12-month partner levels, the estimated probability that at least one of those partners will have the potential to transmit HIV for black MSM is over twice that for white MSM. For black MSM, even a relatively low number of UAI partners (e.g. 3) leads to a >50% chance of being exposed to at least 1 partner with the risk of transmitting HIV.