Research Article: Metabolic syndrome among residents of Mizan-Aman town, South West Ethiopia, 2017: A cross sectional study

Date Published: January 31, 2019

Publisher: Public Library of Science

Author(s): Sitotaw Kerie, Melak Menberu, Mathewos Geneto, Adewale L. Oyeyemi.

http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210969

Abstract

Globally, it is estimated that around 20–25% adult population has metabolic syndrome. Individuals who have metabolic syndrome are up to five times more susceptible for chronic diseases than those who have no metabolic syndrome. In Ethiopia there is no sufficient information regarding the magnitude and factors of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to assess prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among residents of Mizan-Aman town, South West, Ethiopia.

The community based cross-sectional study was held at Mizan-Aman town residents. Systematic random sampling was employed to select each household and lottery method was used to select one individual from the household. Data were cleaned, coded and entered by EPI-INFO version 3.5.4 and were transported to SPSS version 20 for further analysis. To indicate the strength of association, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used.

In this study from a total of 558 respondents 534 were completed the interview correctly, which gives a response rate of 95.7%. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 9.6%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that physical inactivity [AOR = 2.61, 95% CI (1.22, 5.58)], age from 18 to 28 years [AOR = 0.36, 95% CI (0.14, 0.90)], being male [AOR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.22, 0.96)] and educational status with cannot write and read [AOR = 0.15, 95% CI (0.04,0.53)], from grade 1 to 8 [AOR = 0. 17, (0.11,0.55)], from grade 9 to12 [AOR = 0.11, (0.03, 0.38)] and from diploma to degree [AOR = 0. 13, (0.01, 0.36)] were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome.

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this study was found to be high. Age, physical activity, educational status and sex were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Physical activity was found to be the means of metabolic syndrome prevention.

Partial Text

Metabolic syndrome is the constellation of metabolic abnormalities which includes central obesity, decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, elevated blood pressures and hyperglycemia [1]. Globally, it is estimated that around 20–25% adult population has metabolic syndrome [2]. Metabolic syndrome increases the magnitudes of cardiovascular disorder and stroke by three to ten times and diabetic mellitus by ten times [3]. Among all diabetic type two ill individuals, 80% also had metabolic syndrome [4]. It is thought to be a driver of the modern day epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disorder and has become a major public health challenge around the world [1].

Among all participants, 9.6% with 95% CI (7.01, 12.19) had metabolic syndrome. Physical activity, sex, educational status and age of participant were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. In this study magnitude of metabolic syndrome is in line with a study done in Japan which was 7.8% [12]. But, it is found to be low when it is compared with studies done in the USA (29.4%), Nepal (22.5%), Canada (52.5%), Ghana (15%) and Nigeria (18%) [13–17]. The possible reason for this discrepancy may be the difference in sample size, study period, and study setting. For example, in Ghana the sample size was 176 while in this study the sample size was 534. Moreover, in the USA, Canada and Nepal abusing alcohol is more common than in Ethiopia, which is the most known factor that accelerate the chance to develop metabolic syndrome. Magnitude of metabolic syndrome in this study is higher than when it is compared with the finding of a study conducted at Cameron (less than 2%) [18]. The possible reason for this discrepancy may be the above study includes both urban and rural residents, whereas our study includes only urban residents. Living in urban increases risk of developing metabolic syndrome by increasing sedentary life style.

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this study was found to be high. Age, physical activity, educational status and sex were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Physical activity was found to be the means of metabolic syndrome prevention.

 

Source:

http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210969

 

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