Date Published: April 18, 2018
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Author(s): Ali Toolabi, Mohammad Malakootian, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Ali Esrafili, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Mohsen AskarShahi, Maesome Tabatabaei.
In this study, modeling and degradation of diazinon from contaminated water by advanced oxidation process together with a new test for effluent bioassay using E. coli were investigated. The experiments were designed based on response surface methodology. Nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using the sol–gel method. The shape characteristics and specifications of elements in the nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray, respectively. Diazinon was measured using high performance liquid chromatography device and by-products due to its decomposition were identified by gas chromatography-mass (GC–MS). In the present study, effluent bioassay tests were conducted by defining the rate of dehydrogenase enzyme reducing alamar blue method. According to statistical analyses (R2 = 0.986), the optimized values for pH, dose of NPs, and contact time were found to be 6.75, 775 mg/L, and 65 min, respectively. At these conditions, 96.06% of the diazinon was removed. Four main by-products, diazoxon, 7-methyl-3-octyne, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4pyrimidinol and diethyl phosphonate were detected. According to the alamar blue reducing (ABR) test, 50% effective concentration, no observed effect concentration, and 100% effective concentration (EC100) for the mortality rate of E. coli were obtained as 2.275, 0.839, and 4.430 mg/L, respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that mentioned process was high efficiency in removing diazinon, and also a significant relationship between toxicity assessment tests were obtained (P < 0.05).
Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are among the largest and most diverse types of available pesticides. Considering that they affect a wide range of insects and rodents, these pesticides are used by farmers more than other types. But due to the lack of familiarity with the damaging effects of these toxins or proper principles of combating pests, most consumers do this job either incompletely or indiscriminately (Fadaei et al. 2012; Li et al. 2015; Maddah and Hasanzadeh 2017). Therefore, intentional or unintentional human exposure is as a result of the use of pesticides or their residuals in environments including air, water, soil, and plants. Considering global statistics, the largest portion of mortality from pesticides is related to these toxins. Diazinon is an organophosphate pesticides with pKa = 2.6 and medium risk (Kalantary et al. 2014). The major effects of diazinon on vertebrate life are inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase, resulting in aggregation of acetylcholine in acetylcholine receiver and hyper excitation of nerves and muscles. So far, various technologies have widely been applied for removal of diazinon in aqueous solution such as adsorption, electrocoagulation and biodegradation (Amooey et al. 2014; Ehrampoush et al. 2017).
According to the results obtained in Fig. 1, it was found that the syntheses of Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 nanoparticles were successful. By using SEM techniques, the size of the nanoparticles was confirmed at a range of 200 nm. Also, by comparing the elements and peaks produced by EDX analysis, It was found that sol–gel and co-precipitation methods were acceptable for the synthesis of nanoparticles in this study.