Date Published: June 11, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Natalie J. Asaro, David J. Seymour, Wilfredo D. Mansilla, John P. Cant, Ruurd T. Zijlstra, Kimberley D. Berendt, Jason Brewer, Anna K. Shoveller, Juan J. Loor.
Net energy accounts for the proportion of energy expenditure attributed to the digestion, metabolism, and absorption of ingested food. Currently, there are no models available to predict net energy density of food for domestic cats. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to measure the heat increment of feeding in cats, and to model the net energy of commercial diets. Metabolizable energy and calorimetry data from two previous studies was reanalyzed to create net energy models in the present study. Energy expenditure was calculated using measurements of CO2 production and O2 consumption. Net energy was determined as the metabolizable energy of the diets minus the heat increment of feeding. The heat increment of feeding was determined as the area under the energy expenditure curve above the resting fed metabolic rate. Eight net energy models were developed using metabolizable energy, 1 of 4 dietary parameters (crude protein, fat, fiber, and starch), and heat increment of feeding values from 0–2 h or 0–21 h. Two hours postprandial, and over the full calorimetry period, the heat increment of feeding amounted for 1.74, and 20.9% of the metabolizable energy, respectively. Of the models tested, the models using crude protein in combination with metabolizable energy as dietary parameters best fit the observed data, thus providing a more accurate estimate of dietary energy availability for cats.
Net energy (NE) models have been developed for use with multiple agricultural species such as swine and cattle [1, 2], but to date, they do not exist for the domestic cat. North American pet food industry standards currently use the modified Atwater equation to estimate the metabolizable energy (ME) of pet foods [3, 4]. This equation assigns coefficients to three macronutrients–protein, fat, and carbohydrate (calculated as nitrogen-free extract)–to predict the ME content of a diet . However, these equations result in inaccurate predictions of dietary energy content . Developing models to accurately predict the available energy density of food intended for cats is critical to provide consumers with optimal feeding recommendations .
Data from two previous studies were reanalyzed to create net energy models in the present study. Metabolizable energy data, analyzed by measuring fecal and urinary energy losses, was obtained from Asaro et al. , and calorimetry data was obtained from Asaro et al. , which were both conducted under Animal Utilization Protocol 013–9127 (dated 17 March 2013). The cats used for these different collection methods were purpose bred and trained for these specific methodologies and as such, we were unable to keep the same cohort of cats for both previously conducted studies. Therefore, to limit opportunity for differences in digestibility and energy expenditure measurements, both cohorts of cats were of similar age and BCS and were fed the same batches of the three commercial diets. All procedures were reviewed and approved by Proctor and Gamble Pet Care’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and were in accordance with the United States Department of Agriculture and the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care guidelines.
The present study is the first to propose equations that estimate NE values of domestic cat diets. Though indirect calorimetry has previously been used to analyze EE, this study is original in quantifying the HIF as a proportion of ME intake in cats. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first study to follow cats for a prolonged period of time post-feeding and determine changes in energy expenditure at different points throughout the 21 h calorimetry period. The results of this study were novel and resulted in the development of equations that have potential to drastically alter how we determine dietary energy and the resultant feeding recommendations for adult cats.
In conclusion, NE, which accounts for energy spent in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of nutrients, is a more accurate measure of energy directly available to an animal . Expressing energy density on an NE basis could allow a more accurate feeding recommendation than what is currently utilized for commercial feeding recommendations and limit the provision of excess calories to cats. Thus, the present study proposed multiple equations to estimate a NE value and recommends using the dietary parameters of ME and CP to predict NE of complete diets for domestic cats.