Research Highlights: Mucosal CD8+ T cell responses induced by an MCMV based vaccine vector confer protection against influenza challenge

A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
Cytomegalovirus or CMV is a common virus that infects people of all ages. Over half of adults have been infected with CMV by age 40. Most people infected with CMV show no signs or symptoms.
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus that establishes life-long latent infection in a high percentage of the population worldwide.
  • CMV induces the strongest and most durable CD8+ T cell response known in human clinical medicine.
  • Due to its unique properties, the virus represents a promising candidate vaccine vector for the induction of persistent cellular immunity.
  • To take advantage of this, the study constructed a recombinant murine CMV (MCMV) expressing an MHC-I restricted epitope from influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 within the immediate early 2 (ie2) gene.
  • Only mice that were immunized intranasally (i.n.) were capable of controlling IAV infection, despite the greater potency of the intraperitoneally (i.p.) vaccination in inducing a systemic IAV-specific CD8+ T cell response.
  • The protective capacity of the i.n. immunization was associated with its ability to induce IAV-specific tissue-resident memory CD8+ T (CD8TRM) cells in the lungs.
  • The data demonstrate that the protective effect exerted by the i.n. immunization was critically mediated by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.
  • CD8TRM cells promoted the induction of IFNγ and chemokines that facilitate the recruitment of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to the lungs.

Overall, the results showed that locally applied MCMV vectors could induce mucosal immunity at sites of entry, providing superior immune protection against respiratory infections.

Source:

http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008036

Al-Shura, Anika Niambi (2020). “Lymphocytes”. Advanced Hematology in Integrated Cardiovascular Chinese Medicine. Elsevier. pp. 41–46. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-817572-9.00007-0ISBN 978-0-12-817572-9Helper T cells/CD4+ •express CD4 glycoproteins on their cell surface, which activate in the presence of peptide antigens on the surface of invading pathogens; •respond immediately to protect the immune system; •secrete different cytokine proteins according to the immune response.

https://www.cdc.gov/cmv/index.html

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Keywords: cytotoxic T cell, cytomegalovirus, T lymphocyte, herpesvirus, immunity, immunization, vaccine