Date Published: January 25, 2010
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Donal O’Shea, Tom J. Cawood, Cliona O’Farrelly, Lydia Lynch, Jacques Zimmer. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008660
Abstract: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independantly associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects.
Partial Text: Obesity and smoking, independently are important factors for ill health. A recent meta-analysis has shown that obesity is associated with 25–40% of certain malignancies , in particular oesophageal adenocarcinoma, thyroid, renal and colon cancers, multiple myeloma and leukaemia in both obese men and women. It has been reported that this cancer risk is remediable by weight loss . Smoking is the main cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the developed world . Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy at the age of 40 . A large prospective study has shown that smoking coupled with obesity contributes substantially to all-cause mortality, with 3.5 to 5-fold risks for severely obese current smokers compared to normal weight non-smokers . Obese smokers also have an increased risk of developing both Type 2 Diabetes  and cancer . It is likely that carcinogens contained in cigarette smoke can induce malignancy directly , . How smoking and obesity might interact to reduce life expectancy is not clear.
The now established strong association between obesity and cancer , and the profound effects of smoking on obese subjects prompted this study . Obese smokers aged 40 have a 14year reduction in life expectancy compared to lean non-smokers . Our findings show a marked reduction in the numbers and function of NK cells in obese individuals. We also show increased susceptibility of NK cells from obese subjects to the harmful effects of cigarette smoke. These findings may partly explain the dismal outcome for the obese smoker.