Date Published: June 22, 2016
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Author(s): Agbaje Lateef, Monsurat A. Akande, Sunday A. Ojo, Bolaji I. Folarin, Evariste B. Gueguim-Kana, Lorika S. Beukes.
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using nest extract of paper wasp (Polistes sp) was investigated in this work. The AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, dye degradation, blood anticoagulation, and blood clot dissolution (thrombolytic) activities. The crystalline polydispersed AgNPs with size range of 12.5–95.55 nm absorbed maximally at 428 nm and showed anisotropic structures of sphere, triangle, hexagon, rod, and rhombus. The FTIR data showed prominent peaks at 3426 and 1641 cm−1, which indicate the involvement of phenolics compounds and proteins in the synthesis of AgNPs. The prominence of Ag in the EDX spectra showed that indeed, AgNPs were formed. The AgNPs showed potent antibacterial activities (12–35 mm) against three multi-drug strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella granulomatis. While the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger was completely suppressed, the AgNPs produced growth inhibition of 75.61 % against Aspergillus fumigatus at 100 µg/ml. Furthermore, the AgNPs degraded malachite green to the tune of 93.1 %. The AgNPs also prevented coagulation of blood, while it completely dissolved preformed blood clots within 5 min showing the potent anticoagulation and thrombolytic activities. This study, which is the first of its kind to use nest extract of paper wasp for the synthesis of nanoparticles, has shown that the biosynthesized AgNPs could be deployed for biomedical and catalytic applications.
The art of synthesis and the applications of nanoparticles have continued to expand due to the abundance of biological materials that are rich in bioreductant molecules for the eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles. The avoidance of use of hazardous procedures has also widen the scope of biomedical applications, with appreciable level of biocompatibility and lesser toxicity compared with those synthesized using chemical route. To this extent, several biomaterials from plants, bacteria, fungi, algae, and among others have been used to produce nanoparticles (Kumar et al. 2012; Roopan et al. 2013; Velayutham et al. 2013; Das et al. 2014; Kumar et al. 2014; Metuku et al. 2014; Lateef et al. 2015a, b, c, 2016a, b; Lateef and Adeeyo 2015; Waghmare et al. 2015; Yugandhar et al. 2015). To expand the frontiers of applications of biomolecules for the green synthesis of nanoparticles, some recent studies have focused on the use of metabolites from arthropods (Xu et al. 2013; Aramwit et al. 2014; Lateef et al. 2015d). Among several metallic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been the most studied due to the versatility of its applications for diverse biological, biomedical, catalytic, electrical, and electrochemical purposes. These have made AgNPs to be of high relevance in environmental, catalytic, healthcare, food, agriculture, biomedical, and textile applications (Keat et al. 2015).
This study has, for the first time, demonstrated the eco-friendly synthesis of AgNPs using the nest extract of paper wasp. The biosynthesized AgNPs which absorbed maximally at 428 nm were polydispersed in nature with the size range of 12.5–95.55 nm, and showed anisotropic structures of sphere, triangle, hexagon, rhombus, and rod without any form aggregation. The crystalline AgNPs displayed remarkable antimicrobial activities against multi-drug resistant bacteria and fungi, and also degraded malachite green under ambient conditions to the tune of 93.1 %. In addition, potent blood anticoagulation and thrombolytic activities were obtained for the AgNPs. These activities have shown that the nest-mediated AgNPs can find useful biomedical and catalytic applications, particularly as antimicrobial, dye degradation, anticoagulant and thrombolytic agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the biogenic synthesis of AgNPs using the metabolite of paper wasp, which adds to the growing utilization of novel biomaterials of arthropods in nanobiotechnology.