Date Published: February 16, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Jordan L. Wilson, V. A. Samaranayake, Matt A. Limmer, Joel G. Burken, Lucas C.R. Silva.
Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via vapor intrusion (VI) is an emerging public health concern with notable detrimental impacts on public health. Phytoforensics, plant sampling to semi-quantitatively delineate subsurface contamination, provides a potential non-invasive screening approach to detect VI potential, and plant sampling is effective and also time- and cost-efficient. Existing VI assessment methods are time- and resource-intensive, invasive, and require access into residential and commercial buildings to drill holes through basement slabs to install sampling ports or require substantial equipment to install groundwater or soil vapor sampling outside the home. Tree-core samples collected in 2 days at the PCE Southeast Contamination Site in York, Nebraska were analyzed for tetrachloroethene (PCE) and results demonstrated positive correlations with groundwater, soil, soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air samples collected over a 2-year period. Because tree-core samples were not collocated with other samples, interpolated surfaces of PCE concentrations were estimated so that comparisons could be made between pairs of data. Results indicate moderate to high correlation with average indoor-air and sub-slab PCE concentrations over long periods of time (months to years) to an interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface, with Spearman’s correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.31 to 0.53 that are comparable to the pairwise correlation between sub-slab and indoor-air PCE concentrations (ρ = 0.55, n = 89). Strong correlations between soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air PCE concentrations and an interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface indicate that trees are valid indicators of potential VI and human exposure to subsurface environment pollutants. The rapid and non-invasive nature of tree sampling are notable advantages: even with less than 60 trees in the vicinity of the source area, roughly 12 hours of tree-core sampling with minimal equipment at the PCE Southeast Contamination Site was sufficient to delineate vapor intrusion potential in the study area and offered comparable delineation to traditional sub-slab sampling performed at 140 properties over a period of approximately 2 years.
Vapor intrusion (VI) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment is a threat to human health through migration of carcinogenic contaminants into cracks, seams, and gaps in structures (Fig 1). Although VI can occur in commercial, industrial, or residential settings, residential areas pose unique problems as occupants are unknowingly exposed to concentrations of contaminants in indoor air for long periods, which have a notably greater impact (up to three orders of magnitude more) on human health than outdoor sources . Within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program, the VI pathway has recently (2017) been implemented into the Hazard Ranking System , allowing a site to be listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) solely because of VI. Because of this increased emphasis on VI, screening for VI will be required at an increasing rate; however, measurement of VI is not simple and is time-, cost-, and labor-intensive, requiring access agreements to enter homes to conduct testing. Simpler, quicker, and more cost-effective screening methods are needed to effectively assess VI and protect human health.
To elucidate the potential of trees to be indicators of VI potential in this study, tree-core samples were collected at the Tetrachloroethene (PCE) Southeast Contamination Site in York, Nebraska (EPA ID NEN000706200), a Superfund site contaminated primarily with PCE. The PCE Southeast Contamination Site was originally listed on the National Priorities List in May 2014 after PCE and other VOCs were detected in private drinking water wells above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL). Although the PCE Southeast Contamination Site covers approximately 15 km2, the study area for this work covered approximately 2.2 km2 encompassing downtown York and the residential area to the east and south (Figs 2 and 3). The potential sources of PCE contamination are from several former dry cleaning businesses in the downtown York area (Fig 2). During the site assessment, the EPA collected groundwater (Fig 2), soil (S4 Fig), indoor-air (Fig 4), and sub-slab (S1 Fig) samples from the commercial and residential properties in the area of the suspected plume. Residential areas surround the downtown area and extend primarily to the north and east.
As VI transport involves multi-media environmental transport and the heterogeneities inherent in urban environments, multiple sampling approaches of various media are commonly applied, such as groundwater, soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air. Because tree roots interact with subsurface water, soil, and vapor, phytoforensic sampling has been shown to offer a blending or composite of these multiple environmental media [12, 26, 28]. Findings shown here indicate that PCE concentrations in trees can be highly correlated with multiple VI investigative methods, including soil-gas and VI samples (sub-slab and indoor-air samples), especially when comparing to indoor-air concentrations over long periods, and are comparable to sub-slab samples. Indoor-air PCE concentrations in this study collected within 2 months and, to a lesser extent, with average indoor-air concentrations over 2 years, were highly correlated with the interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface. Although this is only one case study, these findings and previous studies [28, 29] suggest that trees are valid indicators of VI potential over long temporal periods.