Date Published: June 15, 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Juan F. Vesga, Souleymane Diabaté, Michel Alary, Stefan Baral, Daouda Diouf, Kouamé Abo, Marie-Claude Boily, Nicola Low
Abstract: BackgroundNational responses will need to be markedly accelerated to achieve the ambitious target of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This target aims for 90% of HIV-positive individuals to be aware of their status, for 90% of those aware to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and for 90% of those on treatment to have a suppressed viral load by 2020, with each individual target reaching 95% by 2030. We aimed to estimate the impact of various treatment-as-prevention scenarios in Côte d’Ivoire, one of the countries with the highest HIV incidence in West Africa, with unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs, and where key populations are important to the broader HIV epidemic.Methods and findingsAn age-stratified dynamic model was developed and calibrated to epidemiological and programmatic data using a Bayesian framework. The model represents sexual and vertical HIV transmission in the general population, female sex workers (FSW), and men who have sex with men (MSM). We estimated the impact of scaling up interventions to reach the UNAIDS targets, as well as the impact of 8 other scenarios, on HIV transmission in adults and children, compared to our baseline scenario that maintains 2015 rates of testing, ART initiation, ART discontinuation, treatment failure, and levels of condom use. In 2015, we estimated that 52% (95% credible intervals: 46%–58%) of HIV-positive individuals were aware of their status, 72% (57%–82%) of those aware were on ART, and 77% (74%–79%) of those on ART were virologically suppressed. Reaching the UNAIDS targets on time would avert 50% (42%–60%) of new HIV infections over 2015–2030 compared to 30% (25%–36%) if the 90-90-90 target is reached in 2025. Attaining the UNAIDS targets in FSW, their clients, and MSM (but not in the rest of the population) would avert a similar fraction of new infections (30%; 21%–39%). A 25-percentage-point drop in condom use from the 2015 levels among FSW and MSM would reduce the impact of reaching the UNAIDS targets, with 38% (26%–51%) of infections averted. The study’s main limitation is that homogenous spatial coverage of interventions was assumed, and future lines of inquiry should examine how geographical prioritization could affect HIV transmission.ConclusionsMaximizing the impact of the UNAIDS targets will require rapid scale-up of interventions, particularly testing, ART initiation, and limiting ART discontinuation. Reaching clients of FSW, as well as key populations, can efficiently reduce transmission. Sustaining the high condom-use levels among key populations should remain an important prevention pillar.
Partial Text: Despite a long-standing national HIV response, HIV incidence in Côte d’Ivoire is the highest in West Africa . Past interventions, especially promotion and distribution of condoms among female sex workers (FSW), have been effective at averting infections, but low coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) resulted in suboptimal population-level impact during the last decade . As with many countries, the national response in Côte d’Ivoire will need to be markedly accelerated in order to reach the ambitious 90-90-90 objective of UNAIDS . The UNAIDS target specifies that, by 2020, 90% of people living with HIV (PLWH) will be aware of their status, 90% of diagnosed PLWH will receive ART, and that 90% of those on treatment will be virologically suppressed (with 95-95-95 coverage by 2030) [4,5]. Current estimates for these indicators point to gaps in the response . Achieving high treatment coverage is nevertheless possible in sub-Saharan Africa, as demonstrated by Botswana’s experience .
The calibrated model produced estimates of HIV prevalence and ART coverage that corresponded to the empirical ones from the different epidemiological surveys (Fig A in S1 Appendix) and programmatic data available . Estimates of incidence, prevalence, and AIDS mortality were also consistent with UNAIDS estimates (Table I in S1 Appendix).
Using mathematical modeling, we explored the population-level impact of reaching, as well as missing, the UNAIDS targets on new HIV infections averted in Côte d’Ivoire. Our results suggest that reaching the UNAIDS targets on time would prevent 50% of infections in adults and 62% of pediatric infections over 2015–2030, compared to coverage achieved in our baseline scenario. Attaining the 90-90-90 objective with a 5-year delay and maintaining that coverage to 2030 would almost halve the potential impact of this accelerated response. This highlights the importance of rapidly scaling up intervention coverage in order to maximize health gains . In fact, reaching the 90-90-90 objective on time could be more important to achieving short-term impact than reaching the 95-95-95 objective in 2030. Importantly, the population-level impact of the UNAIDS targets will be reduced by a quarter if condom coverage in FSW and MSM decreases by 25%. Given the recent funding cutbacks for condoms and prevention activities for key populations in Côte d’Ivoire , consolidating these activities is important. In fact, a model-based evaluation of the HIV response in Côte d’Ivoire suggested that condom use during sex work has been highly effective at preventing transmission in the last decades [2,12].