Date Published: November 28, 2012
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Yimnang Golbuu, Eric Wolanski, Jacques Wasai Idechong, Steven Victor, Adelle Lukes Isechal, Noelle Wenty Oldiais, David Idip, Robert H. Richmond, Robert van Woesik, Mikhail V. Matz. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050998
Reproduction and recruitment are key processes that replenish marine populations. Here we use the Palau archipelago, in the western Pacific Ocean, as a case study to examine scales of connectivity and to determine whether an oceanographic model, incorporating the complex reef architecture, is a useful predictor of coral recruitment. We tested the hypothesis that the reefs with the highest retention also had the highest densities of juvenile coral density from 80 field sites. Field comparisons showed a significant correlation between the densities of juvenile Acropora colonies and total larval recruitment derived from the model (i.e., calculated as the sum of the densities of larvae that self-seeded and recruited from the other reefs in the archipelago). Long-distance larval imports may be too infrequent to sustain coral populations, but are critical for recovery in times of extreme local stress.
Marine connectivity is defined as the sharing of a gene pool through the process of larval dispersal and settlement. The broadcasting of gametes and planktonic larvae are the most common means of marine dispersal. Identifying the extent of larval exchange among marine ecosystems is of primary importance for furthering our understanding of connectivity among marine populations , . Early coral-reef studies suggested that larval exchange among coral reefs occurred at large, regional scales , . More recent oceanographic models for the Caribbean and elsewhere have suggested that larval connectivity is unlikely, or rare, at scales of hundreds of kilometers or more . In support of the model outputs, recent genetic studies suggest that most larval exchange is local, at the scale of 1–10 km –. Here we use Palau (Figure 1) as a case study to examine local scales of larval connectivity, to determine whether coral recruitment was predictable, both through self-seeding and connectivity, and to discuss the implications of the results in the context of maintaining reef resilience.
The altimetry-derived, long-term average, surface currents in the ocean near Palau were from southeast to northwest, at a speed of about 0.12 m s−1. These currents also fluctuated through time, being generally the fastest (∼0.25 m s−1) during La Niña years and the slowest (∼ 0.05 m s−1) during El Niño years (Figure 4). Fast and slow monthly mean currents occurred as events that were independent of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Indeed, there was no significant correlation between the SOI and the monthly averaged currents off Palau (Figure 4). This independence is a consequence of Palau’s location in the shear zone between the eastward-flowing North Equatorial Counter Current, to the south of Palau, and the westward-flowing North Equatorial Current, to the north of Palau. The resultant surface currents around Palau are dominated by transient, oceanic eddies .
The hydrodynamic model showed considerable local retention at all sites in the Palau archipelago for time scales of three days and less. But at longer time scales, the northern reefs were well flushed and the simulated larvae were lost, whereas the southern lagoon retained larvae (Figures 5 and 6). Several studies have shown that larval behavior influences recruitment , , but only at the scale of centimeters to meters. Therefore, we did not incorporate larval behavior in our model because we were interested in the hydrodynamics and the larval retention capacity at the scale of kilometers. The results indicated that both self-seeding (auto-seeding) of reefs and recruitment from other reefs (allo-seeding), by waterborne dispersal of larvae, is common within the Palau archipelago. The former prevails in areas of high-reef density (i.e., in the southern lagoon), and the latter is most common in areas of low-reef density (i.e., in the northern lagoon).