Date Published: March 30, 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Dereje Hayilu Anbesse, Tsehay Kassa, Biruktayit Kefyalew, Atirsaw Tasew, Abie Atnie, Beredu Desta, Andreas Wedrich.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of pterygium among adults living in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia.
A cross sectional design study was carried out in 390 participants in Gondar city from April 15 to May 7, 2016. Basic ophthalmic examination was performed using portable slit lamb, 3.5x magnifying loop with torch light and a pretested and structured questionnaire was completed. The raw data has been entered into EPI INFO 3.5.1 and analyzed by SPPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics was summarized descriptive data. Logistic regression was used to summarize the predictors of pterygium. The variables with p-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant risks of pterygium.
The prevalence of pterygium among study participants was 151(38.7% (95%CI; 33.8–43.8)). Among those who have pterygium, 149(98.7%) were developed pterygium on the nasal side and 15(9.9%) on temporal side of the either eye and 13(8.6%) have both. Age between 41-60(AOR = 2.20(95%CI: 1.22, 3.39)), age between 61-86(AOR = 7.97(95%CI: 2.74, 23.17)), male sex (AOR = 2.20(95%CI: 1.28, 3.82)), outdoor working area(AOR = 3.75(95%CI: 2.18, 6.46)), the use of traditional eye medication (AOR = 2.55 (95%CI: 1.04, 5.90)) and family history of pterygium (AOR = 6.68(95% CI: 2.53, 17.60)) were positively associated with pterygium whereas use of sunglass/hat (AOR = 0.40(95%CI:0.20, 0.78)) was negatively associated.
There is a high prevalence of pterygium in Gondar city northwest Ethiopia. Old age, male sex, outdoor working area, utilization of traditional eye medication and family history of pterygium were statistically significant predictors of pterygium. The use of sunglass/hat was protective against pterygium.
Pterygium is a wingy shaped fibro vascular growth of the conjunctiva on to the cornea usually nasally. It occurs in the palpebral fissure area, much more often nasally than temporally, although either or both (“double” pterygium) can occur . It can induce significant astigmatism and cause visual impairment. Pterygium is often preceded by a related non-cancerous condition called pingueculum. Its main clinical presentations are redness, irritation, decreased vision and ocular discomfort. It may also be asymptomatic [2, 3].
A total of 390 study participants with response rate of 91.76% were involved in the study. Among them 222 (56.9%) of the respondents were females. The mean age of study participants was 38.69 ± 15.83 (range 20 to 88) years. The majority of respondents 120 (30.8%) were illiterate and 123 (31.5%) of them were merchants in occupation. Majority of the respondents 295 (75.6%) were orthodox and 83 (21.3%) of the respondents were Muslims. Table 1.
The prevalence of pterygium among study participants was 151(38.7% (95%CI; 33.8–43.8)). This is one of the highest magnitudes of pterygium among different epidemiological studies. It is in line with the study conducted in Amazon forest of Brazil (36.6%) and in the rural area of Doumen county, China (37.46%) [13,14]. In comparison to the study conducted in Japanese population aged 40 years and above (30.8%), the present day result is higher . There were many epidemiological studies showing low prevalence of pterygium. For instance the prevalence rate of pterygium was 19.6% in central Myanmar, 12.5% in Nigeria, 8.8% southern Ethiopia and 8.47% in central India [5, 7, 8, 10]. The discrepancy observed might be due to the variation of geographical and climatic setting, sun light and ultraviolet exposure, age, economic situation and the use of traditional medication.
There is a high prevalence of pterygium in Gondar city northwest Ethiopia. Old age, male sex, outdoor working area, utilization of traditional eye medication and family history of pterygium were statistically significant predictors of pterygium. The use of sunglass/hat was a significant protective factor for pterygium occurrence.