Date Published: February 28, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Livia Melo Villar, Bruno Geloneze, Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques, Maria Lucia Elias Pires, Juliana Custódio Miguel, Elisangela Ferreira da Silva, Vanessa Alves Marques, Leticia de Paula Scalioni, Elisabeth Lampe, Motoyuki Otsuka.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients have higher risk to be infected with parenterally transmitted viruses, like hepatitis B or C virus. This study aims to determine HBV and HCV infection prevalence in DM2 patients from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. A total of 537 DM2 patients were included, 194 (36.12%) males and 343 (63.87%) females, with mean age of 57.13±11.49 years. HBV and HCV markers were determined using serological and molecular analysis, and risk factors were evaluated in a subgroup from Southeast (n = 84). Two HBV acute (HBsAg+/anti-HBc -) and one HBV chronic case (HBsAg+/anti-HBc+) were found. Six individuals (1.1%) were isolated anti-HBc, 37 (6.9%) had HBV infection resolved (anti-HBc+/anti-HBs+), 40 (7.4%) were considered HBV vaccinated (anti-HBc-/anti-HBs+). Thirteen patients (2.42%) had anti-HCV and 7 of them were HCV RNA+. In the subgroup, anti-HBc positivity was associated to age and anti-HCV positivity was associated to age, time of diabetes diagnosis, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase at bivariate analysis, but none of them was statistically significant at multivariate analysis. As conclusion, low prevalence of HBV and high prevalence HCV was found in DM2 patients.
Hepatitis B and C virus infection are major global health problems. All over the world, it has been estimated that 257 million persons are chronically infected with HBV and 71 million of individuals are HCV chronic carriers [1,2]. In Brazil, overall prevalence varies from 0 to 16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 1.38% up to 47% for antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV) according geographic region or specific groups[3–8].
This study showed prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HCV in DM2 patients of 0.55% and 2.42%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was low compared to studies among DM patients in China (13.5%) , Gana (5.5%)  and Ethiopia (3.7%) , but similar prevalence was reported in general population in Brazil [3,6] suggesting that DM2 patients is not at higher risk to infection by HBV than the general population in this region. In addition, no individual had HBV DNA detected in HBsAg positive samples what could be the result of HBV treatment at the time of collection or transportation of samples from distinct regions from Brazil to Southeast region where molecular assays were conducted.