Research Article: Prevalence of Human Parvovirus B19, Bocavirus, and PARV4 in Blood Samples from the General Population of China and Lack of a Correlation between Parvovirus and Hepatitis B Co-Infection

Date Published: May 30, 2013

Publisher: Public Library of Science

Author(s): Rui Tong, Liping Shen, Wenjiao Yin, Weimin Zhou, Jian Lu, Meiqin Zheng, Shengli Bi, Yongliang Lou, Wenjie Tan, Lijun Rong.


Few comprehensive studies have investigated viraemia caused by human parvoviruses (HPAVs) in China. A total of 1626 of blood samples were collected from non-HBV and HBV infected Chinese subjects (adults, N = 1279; children, N = 347) from south-western and south-eastern China. DNA from three HPAVs was detected in blood samples using PCR-based assays. The epidemiological profiles and association with HBV co-infection were also analysed. Of the 1626 blood samples tested, 138 (8.49%) were found to exhibit HPAV viraemia, including 3.51% with B19, 3.75% with HBoV and 2.52% with PARV4. The presence of B19 DNA in both child and adult, as well as that of PARV4 DNA in adult,from the south-western region was significantly higher than that from the south-eastern region (P = 0.006 for B19 in children; P = 0.026 for B19 in adults; and P = 0.014 for PARV4 in adult).However, the frequency of HBoV DNA in adults from the south-western region was significantly lower than that observed in adults from the south-eastern region (P = 0.001). Furthermore, HBoV was more prevalence in male (4.9%) than in female (1.4%) individuals. In addition, no significant correlation between HBV and HPAV co-infection was found using serum samples from Chinese adults. In conclusions,the molecular prevalence of three HPAVs in blood samples exhibited variation among different populations depending on area, age and gender; No association between HPAV and HBV infection in adults was found. Our data provide a basis for improving blood safety and preventing HPAV infection in China.

Partial Text

Human parvoviruses (HPAVs) are small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses. In recent years, the number of identified HPAVs has increased rapidly [1]. In addition to B19, which was the first HPAV known to cause erythematous infectiosum and a variety of other disease manifestations [2], the HPAV family now also includes human bocavirus (HBoV) and parvovirus 4 (PARV4), both of which were first reported in clinical samples in 2005 [3], [4]. Several studies have shown that HBoV was detected in human respiratory secretions and faeces and might associate with acute respiratory tract symptoms and gastrointestinal disease [5]–[7]. However, HBoV has also been frequently detected in asymptomatic patients and in patients co-infected with other pathogens [7]. PARV4 has been detected in blood, pooled plasma, and diverse tissue samples of HIV/AIDS patients who are also known injectable drug users [8], [9]. However, the clinical significance of co-occurrence of PARV4 DNA in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients remains controversial [8]–[12].

The present study is the first comprehensive investigation of the epidemiological profiles of HPAVs among the general population in China using blood samples and PCR-based assays. The overall prevalence of HPAV viraemia in the general Chinese population was 3.51% B19, 3.75% HBoV and 2.52% PARV4. Groups were evaluated based on gender, age, and regional differences. We also compared the frequency of three HPAVs between HBV-infected subjects and healthy controls. We found several aspects of HPAV infection that had not been reported previously, and we increased the knowledge of the epidemiological profiles of HPAV infection in China.