Date Published: May 2, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Yu Zhu, Fengmei Xu, Jie Shen, Youshuo Liu, Changhua Bi, Jing Liu, Yufeng Li, Xueqin Wang, Zhengnan Gao, Linlang Liang, Yanyan Chen, Weiping Sun, Qingbo Guan, Junqing Zhang, Zuojie Luo, Lixin Guo, Xiaopin Cai, Ling Li, Lingling Xiu, Li Yan, Chunlin Li, Xiaoyun Shi, Mei Zhu, Jian Kuang, Guangwei Li, Linong Ji, Antonio Palazón-Bru.
Type 2 diabetes [T2D] and thyroid dysfunction [TD] often co-occur, have overlapping pathologies, and their risk increases with age. Since 1995, universal salt iodization has been implemented in China to prevent disorders caused by iodine deficiency. However, after two decades of implementation of universal salt iodization, the prevalence of TD in elderly Chinese patients with T2D is not well described and may have been underestimated. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey across 24 endocrinology centers in China between December 2015 and July 2016. Demographic and clinical data from 1677 patients with T2D were obtained and analyzed to examine the prevalence of TD along with T2D in these patients. We assessed TD prevalence according to the four TD subtypes [subclinical hypothyroidism, clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and clinical hyperthyroidism], TD history, gender, and age. The diagnosis rates were calculated for TD and also for the TD subtype. The number of patients reaching treatment goals for T2D [hemoglobin A1c <7%] and TD [normal free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]] and the incidences of complications and comorbidities were recorded. Among the enrolled patients with T2D [N = 1677], TD was diagnosed in 23.79% [399/1677] out of which 61% (245/399) were previously diagnosed and 38.59% (154/399) were newly diagnosed cases. Subclinical hypothyroidism, clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and clinical hyperthyroidism were reported in 4.89%, 9.3%, 1.13%, and 3.16% of the total population, respectively. Among patients previously diagnosed with TD, the incidence in women [166/795; 20.88%] was higher than in men [79/882; 8.96%]. The treatment goals for TD and T2D were attained in 39.6% [97/245] and 34.41% [577/1677] of the cases, respectively. Diabetic complications and comorbidities were reported in 99.7% of patients, with peripheral neuropathy being the most common [43.46%] followed by cataract [24.73%]. We had found that the incidences of dyslipidemia, elevated LDL levels, and osteoporosis were significantly higher in patients with TD than those without TD. TD is underdiagnosed in elderly Chinese patients with T2D.
Worldwide, the proportion of elderly population is increasing. The global proportion of people aged ≥60 years increased from 9.2% in 1990 to 11.7% in 2013 and is expected to reach 21.1% by 2050 . China is no exception to this; as of 2015, 16.1% [>220 million people] of the total population in China is aged >60 years . There are several diseases particularly targeting the elderly population, and diabetes mellitus is one of them .
This study, evaluated the prevalence of TD in elderly patients with T2D in 24 endocrinology clinics across China and found that TD was underdiagnosed in this population. Our findings suggest that regular annual screening for thyroid function in patients with T2D maybe helpful to improve health outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with T2D [13,25].
TD is prevalent in Chinese patients with T2D, with clinical- hypothyroidism being the most common TD subtype, which was more prevalent in women than in men. In addition, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, and CHD are common complications in elderly Chinese patients with both T2D and TD. We recommend routine thyroid function testing of elderly patients with T2D in outpatient settings, especially of elderly females, and other old patients with risk factors, including those with a family history of diabetes, TD, and cardiovascular disease.