Date Published: October 21, 2011
Author(s): Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positive for presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed significant differences between ELISA and RT-PCR for detection of virus in aborted fetuses.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae and is closely related to classical swine fever and ovine Border disease viruses (Donis 1995) that cause Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in mammals including Antilocapridae, Bovidae, Camelidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae, Suidae, Tragulidae families and small ruminants (Grondahl et al. 2003; Nettleton 1990; Van Campen et al. 2001; Loken et al. 1995). Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has world-wide distribution and causes various clinical syndromes in cattle including diarrhea, mucosal disease, reproduction disfunctions (abortion, teratogenesis, embryonic resorption, fetal mummification and stillbirth) and hemorrhagic syndrome (Coetzer and Tustin 2004; Passler et al. 2007; Baker 1995).
In this study a total of 2173 abomasal content samples of aborted fetuses including 620 Bovine, 525 Ovine, 442 Caprine, 372 Buffalo and 214 Camel from 1012 commercial herds of various area of Iran were tested for presence of BVDV by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay.
There are many factors those causes abortion in livestock but the causes of animal abortion are unknown in more than 50% of the cases. BVD is one of the most important infectious diseases which associated with infertility and abortion. Placental changes produced by BVDV could allow other pathogenic organisms to cross the fetal placenta barrier (Murray 1991).
ELISA: enzyme linked immune sorbent assay; RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; BVDV: bovine viral diarrhea virus; ANOVA: analysis of variance; RNX: RNA extraction.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All works such as collection of samples, RNA extraction, ELISA and RT-PCR performing, statistical analysis and writing of manuscript was done by Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi.