Date Published: December 05, 2019
Publisher: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Author(s): Agnes de Souza Lima, Marcello Machado, Rita de Cassia Ribeiro Pereira, Yuri Karaccas de Carvalho.
To develop 3D anatomical models, and corresponding radiographs, of canine jaw fractures.
A base model was generated from a mandibular bone scan. With this model it was possible to perform fracture planning according to the anatomical location.
The 3D base model of the canine mandible was similar in conformation to the natural bone, demonstrating structures such as canine tooth crowns, premolars and molars, mental foramina, body of the mandible, ramus of the mandible, masseteric fossa, the coronoid process, condylar process, and angular process. It was not possible to obtain detail of the crown of the incisor teeth, mandibular symphysis, and the medullary channel. Production of the 3D CJF model took 10.6 h, used 150.1 g of filament (ABS) and cost US$5.83.
The 3D canine jaw fractures models, which reproduced natural canine jaw fractures, and their respective radiographic images, are a possible source of educational material for the teaching of veterinary medicine.
Mandibular fractures are commonly observed in the clinical routine of small animals and account for approximately 3% of all reported fractures in dogs1.
Experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Federal do Acre (CEUA-UFAC), protocol number 47/18.
The 3D base model of the mandible showed a similar conformation as the natural bone, maintaining the same length and width, in addition to reproducing the structures that identify the bone. The following anatomical structures were observed: canine tooth crowns, premolar and molar teeth, mental foramina, body of the mandible, ramus of the mandible, masseteric fossa, and coronoid, condylar and angular processes. However, it was not possible to obtain details of the incisor tooth crowns, union of the mandibular symphysis or projection of the mandibular canal (Fig. 2).
The creation of 3D CJF models was based on the need to represent mandibular fractures in dogs, as this condition is clinically relevant in veterinary medicine, but is not sufficiently addressed in theoretical and practical training17. This may be related to the limitation of educational materials or the failure of teaching institutions in prioritizing and enforcing education in this field20.
The 3D CJF models reproduced all types of mandibular fracture that we intended to represent, as well as producing reliable radiographic images that mimicked the general anatomical aspects of the canine mandible. The 3D CJF models, and their respective radiographic images, are a possible alternative source of educational material for the teaching of veterinary medicine.