Date Published: November 7, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): John Philip Louis, Alex M. Wood, George Lockwood, Alison L. Calear.
This study aimed at developing a revised validated version of the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI) known as YPI-R2 that had 17 theoretical subscales. Using separate ratings for fathers and mothers samples from Singapore (n = 582, 617), Manila (n = 520, 538), Jakarta (n = 366, 383), and the USA (n = 204, 214), exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted. This resulted in five subscales for fathers and six for mothers. The 17 theoretical subscales were not supported. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity of this new revised alternative YPI-R2 were also demonstrated. The stringent incremental validity test showed that the YPI-R2 accounted for additional statistically significant variance over and above that contributed by gender and three other established parenting instruments in predicting clinically relevant outcomes. Partial invariance of its factor structure was demonstrated through multigroup CFA using Eastern and Western samples. Finally, significant correlations with the 18 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) supported a central tenet of schema therapy that these are associated with early negative parenting patterns. Parenting norms in both Eastern and Western cultures that were associated with ill-being were also discussed thus showing the cross-cultural relevance of the YPI-R2.
Schema Therapy (ST) evolved out of decades of clinical experience with helping patients overcome a broad range of deeply entrenched negative core beliefs known as Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs; or known colloquially as negative schemas). It is rapidly evolving and attracting empirical tests, initially from within the clinical psychology community; these EMSs have been found to be associated with a variety of psychopathologies, including personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) [1–5]. EMSs are broad, pervasive themes comprising emotions, cognitions, memories, bodily sensations, and distorted beliefs about one’s self and others . The theory underlying ST postulates that EMSs develop when the core emotional needs of a child are not met adequately through specific early negative parenting patterns of the caregivers [7, 6]. This tenet of ST is supported by studies showing that EMSs are linked to early negative parenting experiences [8–13]. The association between EMSs and negative parenting patterns or Exasperation Interactions  mirrors the important empirical associations found between Early Adaptive Schemas (EASs; or known colloquially as positive schemas) and positive parenting constructs or what we call Nurturing Interactions from recent studies conducted by Louis, Wood, Lockwood, Ho, and Ferguson , and Louis, Wood, and Lockwood . To date, 18 EMSs have been identified ; their hypothesized relationships with early negative parenting patterns and core emotional needs are shown in S1 Table .
IBM SPSS Statistics 23  was used to conduct Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), compute Pearson’s correlations and Cronbach’s alpha reliability values, and run hierarchical regression analyses. For single and multigroup CFA, Mplus 8 software using Weighted Least-Squares Mean and Variance (WLSMV) adjusted estimations was used  since we modeled these data to account for the ordered-categorical nature of the response scales . A missing data analysis was initially carried out using Little’s Missing Completely at Random test (MCAR)  to see if missing patterns were at random. A robustness check was carried out on the analysis based on ratings of the fathers to determine the impact of missing values on the data. Three methods were employed to investigate this–Exclude case pairwise feature in SPSS, replacing missing data with the mean value, and Multiple Imputation, using the 5th imputed data set. If no differences emerged from the factor structure from all three methods, then the mean of all responses from other subjects was used to impute the missing values.
In ST practice, the YSQ is used to identify the EMSs linked to a patient’s presenting problems. The YPI is used along with the YSQ-S3 to help identify the likely origin of these EMSs. The YPI was developed based on the assumption that each EMS originated from a corresponding unmet core emotional need resulting from a pattern of dysfunctional parenting. While the identification of the origin of EMSs plays a central role in both the conceptualization and treatment phases of ST, unlike the YSQ, the YPI did not meet current standards for development and validation.