Date Published: July 10, 2018
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Jose Guillermo Cedeño Laurent, Augusta Williams, Youssef Oulhote, Antonella Zanobetti, Joseph G. Allen, John D. Spengler, Jonathan Alan Patz
Abstract: BackgroundIn many regions globally, buildings designed for harnessing heat during the cold exacerbate thermal exposures during heat waves (HWs) by maintaining elevated indoor temperatures even when high ambient temperatures have subdued. While previous experimental studies have documented the effects of ambient temperatures on cognitive function, few have observed HW effects on indoor temperatures following subjects’ habitual conditions. The objective was to evaluate the differential impact of having air conditioning (AC) on cognitive function during a HW among residents of AC and non-AC buildings using a prospective observational cohort study.MethodsWe followed 44 students (mean age = 20.2 years; SD = 1.8 years) from a university in the Greater Boston area, Massachusetts in the United States living in AC (n = 24) and non-AC (n = 20) buildings before, during, and after a HW. Two cognition tests were self-administered daily for a period of 12 days (July 9–July 20, 2016), the Stroop color-word test (STROOP) to assess selective attention/processing speed and a 2-digit, visual addition/subtraction test (ADD) to evaluate cognitive speed and working memory. The effect of the HW on cognitive function was evaluated using difference-in-differences (DiD) modelling.FindingsMean indoor temperatures in the non-AC group (mean = 26.3°C; SD = 2.5°C; range = 19.6–30.4°C) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in the AC group (mean = 21.4°C; SD = 1.9°C; range = 17.5–25.0°C). DiD estimates show an increase in reaction time (STROOP = 13.4%, p < 0001; ADD = 13.3%, p < 0.001) and reduction in throughput (STROOP = −9.9%, p < 0.001; ADD = −6.3%, p = 0.08) during HWs among non-AC residents relative to AC residents at baseline. While ADD showed a linear relationship with indoor temperatures, STROOP was described by a U-shaped curve with linear effects below and above an optimum range (indoor temperature = 22°C–23°C), with an increase in reaction time of 16 ms/°C and 24 ms/°C for STROOP and ADD, respectively. Cognitive tests occurred right after waking, so the study is limited in that it cannot assess whether the observed effects extended during the rest of the day. Although the range of students’ ages also represents a limitation of the study, the consistent findings in this young, healthy population might indicate that greater portions of the population are susceptible to the effects of extreme heat.ConclusionsCognitive function deficits resulting from indoor thermal conditions during HWs extend beyond vulnerable populations. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating sustainable adaptation measures in buildings to preserve educational attainment, economic productivity, and safety in light of a changing climate.
Partial Text: Heat waves (HWs) have devastating consequences for public health globally. Exposure to higher temperatures results in the human body’s inability to thermoregulate, leading to both indirect and direct health impacts, related to cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, cerebrovascular, and diabetes-related morbidity and mortality [1–6]. Estimates of heat-related mortality vary by location and population. In the United States, extreme heat exposure is the leading cause of death of all meteorological phenomena, responsible for over 7,000 deaths from 1999 to 2010 . Previous studies have shown that heat-related mortality is punctuated by high-profile acute events like the HW in Europe in 2003 that claimed 70,000 lives and India in 2015 that was responsible for 2,300 heat-related deaths . As global temperatures warm, temperatures that are currently thought of as extreme will become more common . The changing climate has important heat-related public health implications. Across the globe, 2016 has been the warmest year in the past 200 years of recorded history , and a warmer climate in the future is expected to result in tens of thousands of excess deaths per year in the US by the year 2100 . In addition to increasing overall mean temperature, climate change is projected to increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of HWs [12–15].
We found that individuals in non-AC buildings experienced reductions in cognitive function, as assessed by working memory and selective attention/processing speed, ranging from 4.1% to 13.4% relative to baseline and with respect to the AC group. The analysis suggests that these reductions might be attributable to an increase in thermal load and the combined influence of other environmental (e.g., ventilation, acoustics) and behavioral (e.g., hydration, sleep) factors that compound the effects of heat exposure in real-life settings. Increasing evidence from experimental, epidemiological, and econometric studies has demonstrated the effects of increased heat exposures on productivity , learning ability , and morbidity and mortality in humans [17,18,40]. This research builds upon this body of evidence because it is the first field study demonstrating the detrimental cognitive effects of a HW in a group of young, healthy individuals. Research focusing on the mechanistic pathways in which body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans often relies on the experimental inducement of passive hyperthermia via controlled environmental exposure to heat. These efforts, however, fail at recreating the complex environmental and behavioral factors influencing cognitive function found in real settings. In contrast, we were able to comprehensively characterize the environmental exposures and physiological reactions as well as behaviors of 2 groups drawn from the same population but with differential heat exposure during a naturally occurring HW. Therefore, the environmental exposures are of unequivocal validity in terms of magnitude, duration, and complexity.