Date Published: July 25, 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Marguerita Lightfoot, Megan Dunbar, Sheri D. Weiser
Abstract: Community efforts and peer support programs are needed in addition to provider-initiated and opt-out HIV testing in adolescents, Sheri Weiser and colleagues discuss.
Partial Text: A recent systematic review concluded that PITC is the most commonly used strategy for HIV testing to identify undiagnosed children and adolescents, likely because of its seeming ease to implement and its documented high uptake and yield in previous studies . The review highlighted that this strategy is more likely to identify those adolescents already showing symptoms of HIV and who may therefore have more advanced disease, which prompts their provider to offer an HIV test . However, Simms and colleagues hypothesized that by offering PITC over a 2-year period in primary care settings through an opt-out testing approach, most older children and adolescents living with undiagnosed HIV would likely present for primary care at some point, and thus, this approach would identify a higher proportion of undiagnosed nonsymptomatic HIV infection than is typical of PITC.
Implementers planning HIV testing and counseling strategies for adolescents must consider a number of critical issues. Adolescents have the lowest rate of primary care use among any age group . Many adolescents with asymptomatic HIV or sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related symptoms do not seek treatment services , and those who do access the healthcare system may not be screened for HIV even when PITC is targeted for them . Compounding these issues in sub-Saharan Africa are the numerous barriers experienced by adolescents in accessing medical care, particularly the lack of adolescent-friendly services available during clinic hours that do not conflict with school attendance, adolescents’ lack of knowledge about HIV/STIs and available services, costs of services or transport to clinics, and HIV-related stigma . When children and adolescents do access services and when PITC is offered, they often encounter providers who are not trained in or responsive to developmental issues or who can be judgmental in their approach . In addition, the potential impact of parents, caregivers, and families on HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa cannot be underestimated. The identification of a child or adolescent’s HIV status can represent potential exposure of the parent’s positive HIV status. Also, parents’ fear of HIV stigma and likely adverse consequences, worry about their child or adolescent’s emotional reaction, and the desire to protect their son/daughter’s childhood can result in a lack of parental support and consent for HIV testing. Further, families often perceive adolescents as being at lower risk for HIV, and cultural taboos can undermine conversations with adolescents about sex and HIV risk. The lack of parental or family support for HIV testing is a particularly salient challenge, as allowing adolescents to consent for sexual and reproductive health services without parental knowledge is not universal across sub-Saharan Africa.
A combination of strategies to reach older children and adolescents and address their developmental and other unique needs is necessary to reduce the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection in this population. As Simms and colleagues note, innovative and effective community-based interventions to increase access and uptake of HIV testing among children and adolescents are warranted. One potentially cost-effective strategy is family-based testing, in which index cases of parents or family members living with HIV provide entry to offering HIV testing within a household. This case-finding strategy has been successfully employed in some STI  and tuberculosis  screening programs. Utilizing multidisease community health campaigns that incorporate HIV testing is another important strategy that has shown promise in reaching undiagnosed adolescents in Uganda and Kenya . In addition, efforts to overcome the potential challenges posed by school-based testing could be important. Issues of parental consent, confidentiality, and linkage/follow-up to care for students who test positive can be addressed through integration with school health programs, educating school administrators and teachers about the age of legal consent for HIV testing (where appropriate), and partnerships with nongovernmental organizations. Peer-driven models in which adolescents mobilize their social networks for testing may be particularly appropriate. Peers have the unique advantage of increased credibility in delivering messages, the ability to speak from their own experiences, and the potential of reaching those individuals in their social and sexual networks who are out of touch with healthcare settings and have been successful at effectively promoting behavior change . The Africaid/Zvandari program, which uses peers to support adherence to HIV treatment and retention in care for adolescent and young adults living with HIV, has been cited as such a model in the WHO’s adolescent HIV testing guidelines . Another important strategy is distribution of HIV self-test kits in home and community settings, which has resulted in high acceptance, uptake, coverage, and yield among adolescents . Attention to adolescent-specific barriers to HIV testing could also guide efforts to strengthen PITC—for example, expanding clinic hours to after school and weekends, enacting policies that allow adolescents to consent for testing, or providing training to providers on adolescent development. This list of potential strategies to reduce unidentified infection in older children and adolescents is not exhaustive, and the empirical evidence is mixed. Thus, additional research that examines the efficacy and effectiveness of focused strategies and combined approaches is critical.