Research Article: Response surface methodology (RSM) modeling to improve removal of ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions in photocatalytic process using copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO/UV)

Date Published: March 28, 2018

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Author(s): Nahid Khoshnamvand, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Amir Mohammadi, Maryam Faraji.


Ciprofloxacin (CIP) antibiotic is considered as an emerging and biological resistant pollutant. This study aimed to improve of the removal of CIP from synthetic aqueous solutions in photocatalytic process through copper oxide nanoparticles as catalyst (CuO/UV). The effect of CIP concentration (10–200 mg/l), catalyst dosage included CuO (0.01–0.1 g/l) and pH (3–11) as independent variables on the COD removal efficiency as response in photocatalytic process using UV-C lamps with three different powers of 8, 15 and 30-W were optimized through the central composite design in response surface method using design-expert software. A second order model was selected as the best model with R2 values and lack of fit as 0.85 and 0.06 for lamp 8-W, 0.89 and 0.11 for lamp 15-W, and 0.86 and 0.19 for lamp 30-W, respectively. Optimum conditions were obtained in CIP concentration of 11.2 (mg/l), CuO dosage of 0.08 (g/l), and pH value of 8.17. In this condition, predicted maximum COD removal was respectively found 83.79, 93.18, and 98.90% for lamps 8, 15 and 30-W. According to the results, photocatalytic process using copper oxide nanoparticles can effectively compose CIP in aqueous solutions.

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Antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolones, have been considered as the important emerging pollutants in water sources and municipal wastewater (Guo et al. 2013). They are priority pollutants due to the high toxicity for algae and bacteria in trace concentration (Hernando et al. 2006). These compounds are extensively used to prevent or treat bacterial infections in humans, animals and plants (Balarak et al. 2017). Antibiotics use in modern aquacultures in diverse areas including Iran in large scale to prevent or treat the infectious diseases in fishes (Adel et al. 2017). The WHO has declared that widespread application of antibiotic in the aquacultures may cause risks for the consumer contributing to the antibacterial resistance in human and veterinary medicine due to the accumulation of their residues in edible tissues of fish (Adel et al. 2017; Conti et al. 2015). Also, antibiotics can release into the surrounding waters during treatment of fish stocks and cause some environmental problems (Adel et al. 2017). Furthermore, presence of antibiotics in the aquatic environments may pose toxicological effects on non-target organisms, disturb the biological balance and photosynthetic cycles of plants (Rakshit et al. 2013).

Second order models were fitted between the experimental results of COD removal obtained on the basis of the central composite experimental design and the independent variables in Table 2. The R2 values of models obtained as 0.85, 0.89 and 0.86 for lamps 8, 15 and 30-W, respectively were shown that there was a high correlation between predicted values from the fitted model and experimental data points.




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