Date Published: November 1, 2016
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Goodarz Danaei, Kathryn G. Andrews, Christopher R. Sudfeld, Günther Fink, Dana Charles McCoy, Evan Peet, Ayesha Sania, Mary C. Smith Fawzi, Majid Ezzati, Wafaie W. Fawzi, James K. Tumwine
Abstract: BackgroundStunting affects one-third of children under 5 y old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the number of stunting cases among children aged 24–35 mo (i.e., at the end of the 1,000 days’ period of vulnerability) that are attributable to 18 risk factors in 137 developing countries.Methods and FindingsWe classified risk factors into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection, teenage motherhood and short birth intervals, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth, child nutrition and infection, and environmental factors. We combined published estimates and individual-level data from population-based surveys to derive risk factor prevalence in each country in 2010 and identified the most recent meta-analysis or conducted de novo reviews to derive effect sizes. We estimated the prevalence of stunting and the number of stunting cases that were attributable to each risk factor and cluster of risk factors by country and region.The leading risk worldwide was FGR, defined as being term and small for gestational age, and 10.8 million cases (95% CI 9.1 million–12.6 million) of stunting (out of 44.1 million) were attributable to it, followed by unimproved sanitation, with 7.2 million (95% CI 6.3 million–8.2 million), and diarrhea with 5.8 million (95% CI 2.4 million–9.2 million). FGR and preterm birth was the leading risk factor cluster in all regions. Environmental risks had the second largest estimated impact on stunting globally and in the South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and Pacific regions, whereas child nutrition and infection was the second leading cluster of risk factors in other regions.Although extensive, our analysis is limited to risk factors for which effect sizes and country-level exposure data were available. The global nature of the study required approximations (e.g., using exposures estimated among women of reproductive age as a proxy for maternal exposures, or estimating the impact of risk factors on stunting through a mediator rather than directly on stunting). Finally, as is standard in global risk factor analyses, we used the effect size of risk factors on stunting from meta-analyses of epidemiological studies and assumed that proportional effects were fairly similar across countries.ConclusionsFGR and unimproved sanitation are the leading risk factors for stunting in developing countries. Reducing the burden of stunting requires a paradigm shift from interventions focusing solely on children and infants to those that reach mothers and families and improve their living environment and nutrition.
Partial Text: Child survival has improved substantially over the past fifty years. The annual number of child deaths under age 5 y declined from 17.6 million in 1970 to 6.3 million in 2013, and under-five mortality declined from 143 per 1,000 live births to 44 during the same period . Global progress in improving childhood growth has been less impressive . While the prevalence of stunting (height-for-age z-score less than two standard deviations below the global median, as defined by the 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards ) among children under 5 y declined from 47% in 1985 to 30% in 2011 globally, only minor improvements have been achieved in some of the poorest regions of the world, especially South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa . In recognition of the large disparities across the globe in the areas of early life nutrition and development, the World Health Assembly set a target to reduce by 40% the number of stunted children worldwide by 2025 .
We estimated the burden of stunting among children 2 y (24–35 mo) of age (i.e., right at the end of the first 1,000 days of life) that is attributable to 18 risk factors in 137 developing countries. The selected countries included all countries designated as developing by the Global Burden of Disease Study , which closely correspond to the countries designated as developing by the United Nations for tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals . These risk factors were selected from an extensive list of modifiable (i.e., behavioral or environmental; nongenetic) risk factors for stunting based on (i) the availability of high-quality exposure data (i.e., nationally representative data using standard measurements such as measured weight rather than self-report, and using appropriate statistical methods for pooling and imputing data ), (ii) strong evidence for an association with stunting, and (iii) the availability of evidence on the effect size on stunting from recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies (criteria described in detail in S1 Text; see also [5–7] and S2 Table). Estimating the burden of stunting attributable to various risks does not in itself establish causality, but because we have included only risk factors for which there is convincing evidence of a causal relationship with stunting, the relationships examined here can be interpreted as our current best estimates of their causal effect. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score < −2 based on the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards . We grouped risk factors into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection, teenage motherhood and short birth intervals, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth, child nutrition and infection, and environmental factors (i.e., unimproved water and sanitation and use of biomass fuels) (Table 1). These categories were based on the similarity of risk factors and of their corresponding interventions. We estimated the proportion of stunting that is attributable to each risk factor and cluster of risk factors in each country, as detailed below. In 2011, we estimated that 44.1 million children aged 2 y in the selected 137 developing countries were stunted, corresponding to 36% of the 2-y-old population. The most important individual risk factor for stunting was being term, small for gestational age (TSGA), with 10.8 million (95% CI 9.1 million–12.6 million) stunting cases attributable at age 2 y in 2011. Unimproved sanitation, with 7.2 million (95% CI 6.3 million–8.2 million) attributable cases of stunting, and diarrhea, with 5.8 million (95% CI 2.4 million–9.2 million) attributable cases, were the second and third most important risk factors for stunting worldwide, respectively (Fig 1). When clusters of risk factors were considered, FGR and preterm birth (preterm, small for gestational age; TSGA; preterm, appropriate for gestational age [PAGA]) were the leading risk factors for stunting prevalence, with 32.5% of stunting prevalence being attributed to these factors (14.4 million cases, 95% CI 12.6 million–16.2 million). This cluster of risk factors was followed by environmental factors (unimproved water, unimproved sanitation, and biomass fuel use), with 21.7% (9.6 million cases, 95% CI 8.4 million–10.8 million), maternal nutrition and infection risk factors, with 14.4% (6.4 million cases, 95% CI 5.3 million–7.5 million), and child nutrition and infection risk factors, with 13.5% (6.0 million cases, 95% CI 2.6 million–9.4 million) of attributable stunting cases. Teenage motherhood and short birth intervals had the fewest attributable stunting cases, with 1.9% (0.86 million cases, 95% CI 0.77 million–0.95 million) (Table 2; Fig 2). Our results suggest that a large proportion of childhood stunting in developing countries could be prevented if exposure to a few key risk factors could be eliminated. Globally, TSGA was associated with the largest stunting burden, followed by unimproved sanitation and childhood diarrhea. This pattern highlights the success of current clinical and public health interventions to prevent and manage childhood infections and improve childhood nutrition in many developing countries [43,44], but also calls for a new focus on interventions before and during pregnancy to address intergenerational effects of malnutrition among girls and women [45,46], as well as interventions to improve the environment in which mothers and families live, with specific attention to improving sanitation. Source: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002164