Research Article: Severe, eosinophilic asthma in primary care in Canada: a longitudinal study of the clinical burden and economic impact based on linked electronic medical record data

Date Published: April 24, 2018

Publisher: BioMed Central

Author(s): Don Husereau, Jason Goodfield, Richard Leigh, Richard Borrelli, Michel Cloutier, Alain Gendron.

http://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-018-0241-1

Abstract

Stratification of patients with severe asthma by blood eosinophil counts predicts responders to anti-interleukin (IL)-5 (mepolizumab and reslizumab) and anti-IL-5 receptor α (benralizumab) therapies. This study characterized patients with severe asthma who could qualify for these biologics in a primary care setting.

We retrospectively selected patients from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2014, using a linked electronic medical records (EMR) database (IMS Evidence 360 EMR Canada) for > 950,000 patients in primary care in Ontario, Canada. Patients aged ≥ 12 years with ≥ 2 documented asthma diagnoses were identified as having severe asthma based on prescriptions for high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) plus either a leukotriene receptor antagonist, long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), or theophylline filled on the same day. Patients’ asthma was considered severe also if they received a prescription for ICS with oral corticosteroids (OCS) or an additional prescription for omalizumab. Patient characteristics, asthma-related medications, and blood eosinophil counts were captured using observed care patterns for the year prior to ICS/LABA and/or OCS prescription. Health care resource use (HCRU) and costs were captured throughout the 1-year follow-up period.

We identified 212 patients who met the criteria for severe asthma. These patients required an average of 6.5 physician visits during the 1-year follow-up period (95% confidence interval 5.7–7.3), and 20 (9%) were referred to respiratory specialists. Overall, 56 patients (26%) with severe asthma had complete blood counts, of whom 23 (41%) had blood eosinophil counts ≥ 300 cells/μL and might be considered for anti-eosinophil therapies. Patients with severe asthma and blood eosinophil counts ≥ 300 cells/μL had more respiratory specialist referrals (17% vs. 12%) than patients with blood eosinophils < 300 cells/μL. Our data suggest that during 2010–2014, Ontario primary care patients with severe asthma and high blood eosinophil counts had greater HRCU than those with lower counts. Approximately 41% of patients with severe asthma could qualify for anti-eosinophil drugs based on blood eosinophil counts. However, the eosinophilic status of most patients was unknown. It is appropriate to increase awareness of the use of blood eosinophil counts to identify patients who could be considered for anti-eosinophil therapies.

Partial Text

In Canada, the prevalence of asthma is approximately 8% for patients 12 years and older [1]. Both Canadian and international clinical practice guidelines have defined a spectrum of asthma severity based on the ability to control symptoms with appropriate medications [2–4]. Approximately 5–10% of patients with the disease have severe asthma, which is defined as the need for high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) plus a second controller (e.g., long-acting β2-agonists [LABA]), and/or oral corticosteroids to control symptoms [5]. Up to 20% of patients with severe asthma have uncontrolled symptoms, which place them at increased risk for diminished health-related quality of life, exacerbations, hospitalizations, and occasional mortality. Moreover, uncontrolled asthma symptoms are associated with significant health care costs [6]. New therapeutics to improve symptom control for patients with severe asthma are necessary.

Our study demonstrates that patients with severe asthma receiving high-dosage ICS/LABA regularly visit primary care clinics in Ontario and use health care resources. These patients required more than the average number of physician visits and referrals to respiratory specialists. Of patients with available complete blood count data, we estimated that 41% would qualify for new therapies that target eosinophil-mediated inflammation based on high blood eosinophil counts (≥ 300 cells/µL). Patients with greater blood eosinophil counts also used more physician and laboratory health care resources than those with counts < 300 cells/µL. Complete blood counts (CBC; and by implication, eosinophil counts) were performed only on a quarter of patients with severe asthma in primary care, yet a relatively high percentage of patients with CBC data (41%) had peripheral blood eosinophilia. Thus, few patients with severe asthma and blood eosinophilia are being identified and referred to respiratory specialists. Our data suggest that patients with greater blood eosinophil counts use more health care resources compared with those with lower eosinophil counts. Blood eosinophil counts were performed for only a quarter of patients with severe asthma in primary care. However, of these patients, approximately 41% had blood eosinophil counts ≥ 300 cells/µL and might be considered for anti-eosinophilic therapies. It is necessary to increase awareness of the use of blood eosinophil counts to identify patients who could qualify for anti-eosinophil therapies.   Source: http://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-018-0241-1

 

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