Date Published: July 3, 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Julia Schregel, Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson, Snorre B. Hagen, Tzen-Yuh Chiang.
The degree of gene flow within and among populations, i.e. genetic population connectivity, may closely track demographic population connectivity. Alternatively, the rate of gene flow may change relative to the rate of dispersal. In this study, we explored the relationship between genetic and demographic population connectivity using the Scandinavian brown bear as model species, due to its pronounced male dispersal and female philopatry. Thus, we expected that females would shape genetic structure locally, whereas males would act as genetic mediators among regions. To test this, we used eight validated microsatellite markers on 1531 individuals sampled noninvasively during country-wide genetic population monitoring in Sweden and Norway from 2006 to 2013. First, we determined sex-specific genetic structure and substructure across the study area. Second, we compared genetic differentiation, migration/gene flow patterns, and spatial autocorrelation results between the sexes both within and among genetic clusters and geographic regions. Our results indicated that demographic connectivity was not a reliable indicator of genetic connectivity. Among regions, we found no consistent difference in long-term gene flow and estimated current migration rates between males and females. Within regions/genetic clusters, only females consistently displayed significant positive spatial autocorrelation, indicating male-biased small-scale dispersal. In one cluster, however, males showed a dispersal pattern similar to females. The Scandinavian brown bear population has experienced substantial recovery over the last decades; however, our results did not show any changes in its large-scale population structure compared to previous studies, suggesting that an increase in population size and dispersal of individuals does not necessary lead to increased genetic connectivity. Thus, we conclude that both genetic and demographic connectivity should be estimated, so as not to make false assumptions about the reality of wildlife populations.
The viability of a species is heavily influenced by the genetic connectivity within and among populations . Gene flow is one of the main determinants of population genetic structure and retention of genetic diversity. Therefore, knowledge about gene flow is important for wildlife conservation and management, e.g., to outline rescue plans for threatened species, improve inter-population connectivity, and predict impacts of climatic change, biological invasions, and anthropogenic disturbances [2–6]. Demographic connectivity, i.e., dispersal, does not necessarily translate into gene flow, i.e., genetic connectivity [7, 8], which is why the application of genetic methods to assess effective dispersal, i.e., dispersal that leads to gene flow, is increasing rapidly . However, few studies compare genetic and demographic connectivity and little is known about the interplay between these processes. Whether gene flow correlates with dispersal or not is a potentially important question, not only in wildlife conservation and management, but also in evolutionary biology and ecology.
Demographic and genetic connectivity are important factors for the survival of a population . It is known that dispersal does not necessarily lead to gene flow, and here we have shown that generalizing about gene flow from information about dispersal behavior based on radio-tracking studies may be problematic. Our results show that dispersal patterns and the degree of differentiation between male and female dispersal behavior in brown bears varies with region, especially in northern Sweden, where, contrary to our expectation, males did not display random distribution across the landscape and rather showed a pattern of philopatry similar to females. At the same time, our monitoring records indicated that large-scale movement among genetic clusters may be fairly low and thus gene flow across the study area may be limited.
In the study of sex-biased dispersal, the use of genetic approaches has been suggested to augment the findings of more ecological methods, e.g. radio-tracking [9, 20, 85]. Our results show that this approach can uncover previously undetected processes, as it allows a larger coverage spatially and greater sample size, especially when using material collected in the course of monitoring schemes. The Scandinavian brown bear population seems to be well on its way towards its prebottleneck state , although in Norway population numbers remain low compared to the historical size [10, 86]. Demographic recovery of a population, as observed here, is often associated with increased gene flow [14, 87]. Here, we have shown that the correlation of population and gene flow increase should not be assumed, even in species with long-distance dispersal capabilities, such as the brown bear. Several studies have found that dispersal decisions are condition dependent and consequently dispersal rate and frequency may vary among locations and individuals [88–93]. However, as gene flow is widely accepted to be an important factor in population viability  and to ensure the long-term existence of the Scandinavian brown bear population, future studies should try to detangle natural, i.e. species-specific, from anthropogenic causes for the observed patterns, by taking environmental and individual characteristics into account.