Research Article: Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

Date Published: February 8, 2017

Publisher: Public Library of Science

Author(s): Madhu Chetri, Morten Odden, Per Wegge, Marco Festa-Bianchet.


Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous telemetry studies on snow leopards and other large carnivores, and may reflect a high-risk high-gain strategy among males.

Partial Text

Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of ecosystems. They traverse large areas to fulfill their energy demands, and their wide ranging movements and killing of domestic stock create conflicts with pastoral communities [1]. Hence, a clear understanding of diets and foraging strategies of top predators is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, and it is listed in Appendix I of CITES. Retaliatory killing, poaching for wildlife trade, habitat degradation and prey depletion are considered key factors leading to population decline [2]. In contrast, wolves are listed in the category Least Concern. However, in the Himalayas, wolves are very rare, and a recent genetic study confirmed that they belong to the ancient Himalayan wolf lineage (Canis lupus chanco) [3]. Ecological information about wolves in this landscape is practically non-existent. However, the preferred habitat of wolves in mountain ranges, i.e. open grassland and alpine meadows [4], is frequently used by pastoral herding communities, and wolves are potentially vulnerable to retaliations due to livestock depredation.

The study area encompassed the Annapurna-Manaslu landscape (N28-29°, E83-85°, Fig 1), situated in the rain shadow of the Trans and semi-Trans Himalayas and adjoining the vast Tibetan Plateau in the north (Fig 1). A major proportion falls within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) and the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA), and a smaller proportion is in the Bhimthang valley which is situated between ACA and MCA.

Wolf scats contained larger proportions of plain dwelling ungulates and smaller portions of cliff dwellers than scats from snow leopards. Similarly, wolves significantly selected plain dwellers, whereas snow leopards selected cliff dwellers. Hence, prediction one was supported by our data. These predictions were founded on previously observed patterns of habitat selection among the two species, i.e. that wolves prefer open undulating plains associated with alpine meadows, whereas snow leopards are adapted to rugged terrain and cliffs [4, 9, 10]. Our results concur with these previous findings, as wolf scats were found mainly in the northwestern sampling grid cells where plain dwelling ungulates were most common. Apparently, the differences between the two species in diets and habitat use are associated with their hunting strategies and social behaviors. The hunting success of the snow leopard and other solitary and stalking/ambushing predators depends on access to cover to reduce attack distances [49]. Coursing and pack hunting predators are typically less dependent on cover, and their hunting success have been attributed to several factors such as pack sizes and physical characteristics of the prey [50, 51].




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