Date Published: July 21, 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Mariana Kikuti, Geraldo M. Cunha, Igor A. D. Paploski, Amelia M. Kasper, Monaise M. O. Silva, Aline S. Tavares, Jaqueline S. Cruz, Tássia L. Queiroz, Moreno S. Rodrigues, Perla M. Santana, Helena C. A. V. Lima, Juan Calcagno, Daniele Takahashi, André H. O. Gonçalves, Josélio M. G. Araújo, Kristine Gauthier, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Uriel Kitron, Albert I. Ko, Mitermayer G. Reis, Guilherme S. Ribeiro, Christopher M. Barker. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003937
Abstract: BackgroundFew studies of dengue have shown group-level associations between demographic, socioeconomic, or geographic characteristics and the spatial distribution of dengue within small urban areas. This study aimed to examine whether specific characteristics of an urban slum community were associated with the risk of dengue disease.Methodology/Principal FindingsFrom 01/2009 to 12/2010, we conducted enhanced, community-based surveillance in the only public emergency unit in a slum in Salvador, Brazil to identify acute febrile illness (AFI) patients with laboratory evidence of dengue infection. Patient households were geocoded within census tracts (CTs). Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical data were obtained from the 2010 national census. Associations between CTs characteristics and the spatial risk of both dengue and non-dengue AFI were assessed by Poisson log-normal and conditional auto-regressive models (CAR). We identified 651 (22.0%) dengue cases among 2,962 AFI patients. Estimated risk of symptomatic dengue was 21.3 and 70.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All the four dengue serotypes were identified, but DENV2 predominated (DENV1: 8.1%; DENV2: 90.7%; DENV3: 0.4%; DENV4: 0.8%). Multivariable CAR regression analysis showed increased dengue risk in CTs with poorer inhabitants (RR: 1.02 for each percent increase in the frequency of families earning ≤1 times the minimum wage; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and decreased risk in CTs located farther from the health unit (RR: 0.87 for each 100 meter increase; 95% CI: 0.80-0.94). The same CTs characteristics were also associated with non-dengue AFI risk.Conclusions/SignificanceThis study highlights the large burden of symptomatic dengue on individuals living in urban slums in Brazil. Lower neighborhood socioeconomic status was independently associated with increased risk of dengue, indicating that within slum communities with high levels of absolute poverty, factors associated with the social gradient influence dengue transmission. In addition, poor geographic access to health services may be a barrier to identifying both dengue and non-dengue AFI cases. Therefore, further spatial studies should account for this potential source of bias.
Partial Text: Approximately 2.5 billion people worldwide live in dengue-endemic areas and are at risk for acquiring the infection . Every year, as many as 390 million dengue infections occur, resulting in an estimated 96 million symptomatic cases . In the Americas, dengue incidence has continuously increased since the reintroduction of its vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, in the 1970s [3–5]. Brazil accounts for the largest number of dengue cases in the region. In 2013 alone, Brazil reported more than 1.46 million cases of dengue; 61.5% of the total number of cases recorded in the American continent [6–8].
During the two-year study period, a total of 12,958 study site residents ≥5 years old received medical care for an AFI at SMEC. Among these residents, 3,459 (26.7%) were evaluated for study inclusion (Fig 2). Age and sex distributions for the groups of patients who were and were not evaluated were similar (both groups had median age of 18 years old and were 47% male). Of the assessed patients, 2,962 (85.6%) were enrolled in the study. Patients who were enrolled in the study were older (19 versus 13 years) and were more likely to be male (48% versus 44%) compared to those not enrolled.
This enhanced surveillance study highlights the large burden of symptomatic dengue in a poor urban slum community of Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil. Even though the study site was relatively small and characterized by high levels of absolute poverty, the spatial distribution of the detected dengue cases was not homogenous, being influenced by neighborhood characteristics; namely, the gradient of social status and proximity to health services. These findings were not specific for dengue, as the spatial distribution of non-dengue AFI presented the same pattern.