Date Published: February 10, 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Claudia T. Codeço, Arthur W. S. Lima, Simone C. Araújo, José Bento P. Lima, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas, Nildimar A. Honório, Allan K. R. Galardo, Ima A. Braga, Giovanini E. Coelho, Denise Valle, Charles Apperson. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003475
Abstract: IntroductionThe mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation.MethodsThe study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km2 areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps.ResultsThe House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small.ConclusionsAll investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use.
Partial Text: The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Traditional Ae. aegypti surveillance is based on periodic household inspections for the presence of larvae-bearing containers, which inform health agents on the most productive breeding sites and trigger control strategies in the form of container removal or chemical treatment. Household surveys also provide measures of infestation in the form of House (HI) and Breteau indices (BI). Based on the former, risk of disease transmission is empirically defined as low if HI<1.0%, or high, if HI> = 4.0%, and these thresholds guide control initiatives .
Dengue vector surveillance is a time and resource consuming activity in many tropical countries. In Brazil, it is estimated that more than 300 million dollars are spent in this activity every year. In this country and many other dengue endemic countries, surveillance protocols are based on larval inspections . Larval surveys are good for identifying key containers, but often fail in providing fast and localized measurements of mosquito abundance. Traps are presented as a complementary approach for dengue vector surveillance and several studies have tested their sensitivity and efficacy. This study expands this discussion by presenting results from a large scale project including five dengue endemic cities simultaneously monitored by four different trap schemes besides the standard immature mosquito survey. Our goal was to reproduce, as well as possible, the real conditions to be faced by a surveillance program using the human and infrastructure resources present in each city. It is important to note, however, that we chose Brazilian municipalities with a prominent record of dengue vector control initiatives and a better than average infrastructure.
This study was carried out to support the development of trap based surveillance programs in dengue endemic countries. Our main conclusions are that all investigated traps are valuable tools and could be considered in combination with vector control strategies to improve our response to dengue and other diseases transmitted by Ae. aegypti. Household larval surveys and trap based surveillance systems are not interchangeable approaches though. Household surveys are required for the identification of the major mosquito breeding sites in a given locality. This allows the design of adequate control or elimination strategies. Traps are useful for monitoring adult infestation levels and the impact of control strategies. Used together, they synergistically optimize both surveillance, prevention and control. Future studies should assess the cost-benefit of such integrated strategies. Other features should be also evaluated before choosing a trap for surveillance: specificity, low cost, ease of distribution, a consistent sampling profile . This will be subject of future studies.