Date Published: April 10, 2017
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Author(s): Bei Liu, Chunxia Li, Guanying Chen, Bin Liu, Xiaoran Deng, Yi Wei, Jun Xia, Bengang Xing, Ping’an Ma, Jun Lin.
Elaborately designed biocompatible nanoplatforms simultaneously achieving multimodal bioimaging and therapeutic functions are highly desirable for modern biomedical applications. Herein, uniform MoS2 nanoflowers with a broad size range of 80–180 nm have been synthesized through a facile, controllable, and scalable hydrothermal method. The strong absorbance of MoS2 nanoflowers at 808 nm imparts them with high efficiency and stability of photothermal conversion. Then a novel multifunctional composite of MoS2@Fe3O4‐ICG/Pt(IV) (labeled as Mo@Fe‐ICG/Pt) is designed by covalently grafting Fe3O4 nanoparticles with polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized MoS2, and then loading indocyanine green molecules (ICG, photosensitizers) and platinum (IV) prodrugs (labeled as Pt(IV) prodrugs) on the surface of MoS2@Fe3O4. The resulting Mo@Fe‐ICG/Pt nanocomposites can achieve excellent magnetic resonance/infrared thermal/photoacoustic trimodal biomaging as well as remarkably enhanced antitumor efficacy of combined photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy triggered by a single 808 nm NIR laser, thus leading to an ideal nanoplatform for cancer diagnosis and treatment in future.
Chemotherapy, photothermal therapy (PTT), and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are three main types of cancer treatment methods, which have achieved great success in extending the lives of cancer patients.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 However, the monotherapy, though maximally optimized, generally cannot eradicate the malignant tumors completely owning to the serious metastasis of cancer and the development of drug resistance.8, 9, 10 Recently, many researches on using nanomaterials for therapeutic applications have shifted away from monotherapy toward the combined PTT/PDT/chemotherapy and strongly confirmed the unique advantages of the combined cancer therapy approach, such as the super‐additive anticancer effect that can greatly enhance the oncolytic efficacy, a much lower toxic side effect by reducing the use dosage of drugs, and the effective suppression of the multidrug resistance.11, 12, 13, 14 To construct this kind of combined therapy systems, well‐designed nanoscale structures with multiple integrated functionalities (including PTT agents, photosensitizers, and drugs) are required.15, 16 For example, our research group previously synthesized a kind of hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNs) coated with temperature‐sensitive poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) methacrylate‐co‐2‐(2‐methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate (p(OEGMA‐co ‐MEMA)) for loading doxorubicin (DOX) drugs and Chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers.16 The as‐obtained HAuNs‐p(OEGMA‐co‐MEMA)‐Ce6‐DOX nanocomposites exhibited a greater chemo/PTT/PDT combined therapeutic benefit than any monotherapy alone under the 650 nm laser stimulation, well demonstrating the great advantages of multimodal combined therapeutic effects for cancer therapy.
In summary, MoS2 nanoflowers with a broad size range differing from 80 to 180 nm were successfully synthesized via a facile one‐step hydrothermal method. The strong absorbance of MoS2 nanoflowers in the near‐infrared range imparts them with high efficiency and stability of photothermal conversion. Based on these MoS2 nanoflowers, a new kind of multifunctional MoS2@Fe3O4‐ICG/Pt(IV) (labeled as Mo@Fe‐ICG/Pt) nanocomposites is successfully fabricated by covalently grafting Fe3O4 nanoparticles with PEI functionalized MoS2, and then loading ICG molecules and platinum (IV) prodrugs on the surface of MoS2@Fe3O4. The photothermal/photodynamic property, MR/IR/PA trimodal bioimagings, in vitro/in vivo antitumor efficacy as well as the potential long‐term toxicity of nanocomposites have illustrated in detail. The results show that the as‐fabricated Mo@Fe‐ICG/Pt nanocomposites exhibit good MR/IR/PA trimodal imaging capacity and remarkable PDT/PTT/chemo‐combined effect, thus resulting in an ideal treatment efficacy for complete eradication of solid tumors.