Date Published: September 15, 2016
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Corinna S. Bazelet, Aileen C. Thompson, Piotr Naskrecki, Robert Guralnick.
The use of endemism and vascular plants only for biodiversity hotspot delineation has long been contested. Few studies have focused on the efficacy of global biodiversity hotspots for the conservation of insects, an important, abundant, and often ignored component of biodiversity. We aimed to test five alternative diversity measures for hotspot delineation and examine the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots for conserving a non-typical target organism, South African katydids. Using a 1° fishnet grid, we delineated katydid hotspots in two ways: (1) count-based: grid cells in the top 10% of total, endemic, threatened and/or sensitive species richness; vs. (2) score-based: grid cells with a mean value in the top 10% on a scoring system which scored each species on the basis of its IUCN Red List threat status, distribution, mobility and trophic level. We then compared katydid hotspots with each other and with recognized biodiversity hotspots. Grid cells within biodiversity hotspots had significantly higher count-based and score-based diversity than non-hotspot grid cells. There was a significant association between the three types of hotspots. Of the count-based measures, endemic species richness was the best surrogate for the others. However, the score-based measure out-performed all count-based diversity measures. Species richness was the least successful surrogate of all. The strong performance of the score-based method for hotspot prediction emphasizes the importance of including species’ natural history information for conservation decision-making, and is easily adaptable to other organisms. Furthermore, these results add empirical support for the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots in conserving non-target organisms.
Global biodiversity hotspots are regions with exceptionally high levels of plant endemism that are threatened by high rates of habitat loss . Although no animal data were used to delineate these hotspots, they are also known to contain high levels of vertebrate endemism. While the current definition relies on endemic species as a surrogate because they have limited geographic ranges and are therefore more vulnerable to extinction, Myers  argues that other criteria, such as species richness, rarity, and taxonomically unusual species, could be employed to achieve the same outcome. Historically, species richness was used more often for a variety of conservation prioritization purposes than endemism since these data are more readily available and, intuitively, the more species a region contains, the more worthy it is of conservation [3, 4]. However, assessing species richness alone without any sense of the composition of the species means that rare or sensitive species may be overlooked . This has led to the development of a variety of alternative methods for assessing conservation priority among regions.
Of a total of 133 katydid species whose Red List status could be assessed, 16 (12.0%) were assessed as DD and excluded from all further analyses. Seventy-six (57.1%) were LC, 17 (12.8%) were VU, 10 (7.5%) were EN and 14 (10.5%) were CR (S2 Table).
The results of this study show clear congruence between katydid hotspots and biodiversity hotspots. In a chi-squared test we found that if a grid cell fell within either type of katydid hotspot, it was more likely to also fall within the other type of hotspot or within a biodiversity hotspot, indicating significant association between the three types of hotspots. Furthermore, values for all count-based and score-based diversity measures were significantly higher in grid cells which fell within biodiversity hotspots than in grid cells which fell outside of biodiversity hotspots. This result is not intuitive since global biodiversity hotspots were defined on the basis of vertebrate and plant diversity  and much ongoing debate has centered around the value of the biodiversity hotspots for the protection of invertebrates, and insects in particular [17, 19].