Date Published: September 18, 2017
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Author(s): Fahimeh Azizi, Mohammad B. Habibi Najafi, Mohammad R. Edalatian Dovom.
Lactobacilli, as the largest group of lactic acid bacteria, produce large amounts of antimicrobial metabolites such as organic acids, fatty acids, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl and bacteriocin, which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and increase shelf life of food. The aim of this study was to identify the Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Iranian raw milk Motal cheese and to detect the presence of bacteriocin genes in the isolated Lactobacillus strains exhibiting antimicrobial activity. For this purpose, 6 Motal cheese samples from Dasht-e-Moghan region, Iran, were subjected to microbial characterization. Nineteen Lactobacillus spp. were isolated and subsequently identified based on biochemical and molecular methods. According to the sequencing of isolates, Lactobacillus spp. consisted primarily of Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus buchneri. The identified isolates were then evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The results of PCR analysis using specific primers of genes encoding Bacteriocin, revealed the presence of Plantaricin A and Plantaricin EF in all Lactobacillus plantarum isolates and Brevicin 174A in 5 of Lactobacillus brevis isolates, whereas the gene encoding Pediocin PA-1 was not observed in any of examined isolates. It is therefore concluded that bacteriocinogenic isolates could be recommended as suitable candidates to be used as starter, adjunct-starter or antimicrobial agents for production of fermented and non-fermented products.
Conversion of carbohydrate to lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may be considered as the most important fermentation in food industry. The characteristic aroma, flavor, and texture of fermented foods (e.g., dairy, meat, and vegetables) are often due to growth of these bacteria. (Habibi-Najafi and Lee 2007; Hayaloglu et al. 2002; Wada et al. 2009). Some strains of LAB isolated from dairy and other fermented products may contribute to the safety and quality of foods owing to possessing antimicrobial agents. The bactericidal effects of such agents on wide range of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus have been studied (Cintas et al. 2001; De Vuyst and Leroy 2007). On the other hand, some strains of LAB play a vital role in the digestive tract by producing antimicrobial metabolites such as bacteriocins and prevent the growth of pathogenic and infection microorganisms (Castro et al. 2011; Ghanbari et al. 2013; Parada et al. 2007; Ahmed et al. 2013; Mahrous et al. 2013). Bacteriocins are divided into two main classes, lantibiotic such as Nisin (class I), and nonlantibiotic such as Pediocin and PlantaricinEF (class II) (Noda et al. 2015).
This study provides an overall analysis on Lactobacillus strains communities in Motal cheese. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt performed on Motal cheese to isolate and identify Lactobacillus strains communities and detect the presence of bacteriocins in the identified strains. The mean value of LAB in Motal cheese was higher in comparison with other types of traditional raw milk products such as Klila cheese (Guetouache and Guessas 2015). Lactobacilli occurrence is usually higher in ripened semi-hard cheeses. This may also due to the differences in terms of milk quality as well as to the standardization of manufacturing facilities.