Date Published: March 7, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Krystian Barzykowski, Anna Majda, Paweł Przyłęcki, Małgorzata Szkup, Valerio Capraro.
Due to changes in Polish society resulting from a significant inflow of immigrants to Poland, the need to develop the cultural competences of various professional groups who have contact with immigrants in their work has increased. These groups should include healthcare professionals, especially because of the significant increase in the number of culturally diverse patients. Therefore, medical education in Poland has had to rapidly adapt to this novel situation. For instance, the teaching process should be now more focused on the development and evaluation of the cultural competences of prospective health care workers. However, there is still a lack of standardized, valid and reliable instruments to assess cross-cultural competences among healthcare professionals. The purpose of the present paper was to describe, for the first time, the translation, adaptation, and psychometric evaluation of the Polish version of the Cross-Cultural Competence Inventory.
Across two studies, we examined psychometric properties of the Cross-Cultural Competence Inventory (CCCI) such as reliability (i.e. internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure) and validity (i.e. theoretical, criteria, convergent). In the first study, 408 participants (75% were healthcare professionals) completed the Polish version of the CCCI and the Positive/Negative Attitude Towards Culturally Divergent People Questionnaire. In the second study, 317 participants (97% were healthcare professionals) completed the CCCI twice, with an interval of at least 22 days. In addition, across two study sessions, participants completed questionnaires constructed to measure (a) cultural intelligence, (b) need for cognitive closure, (c) emphatic sensitiveness, (d) emotional intelligence, (e) self-esteem, (f) social desirability, and (g) personality. Finally, to additionally examine the theoretical validity, 36 professional cross-cultural competence trainers completed the CCCI during a one-session study.
Our findings confirm the reliability and validity of the CCCI. More precisely, in study 1 we proved the theoretical validity and reliability (i.e. internal consistency) of the CCCI. While the assumed structure did not fit the data well, all items were significantly related to the general factor, thus providing strong support for the usage of the total score of the CCCI. In study 2, we additionally estimated the test-retest reliability and theoretical, criterion and convergent validity. Across two studies we were able to successfully confirm these psychometric properties. The reliability was satisfactory and ranged from .83 to .86. We also observed a high and significant positive correlation between CCCI and the Cultural Intelligence Scale, which measures a concept similar to the one measured by CCCI. In addition, a significant relationship between intercultural competences (CCCI) and other variables such as personality, empathic sensitivity, emotional intelligence, self-esteem (positive correlations) and the need for cognitive closure (mainly negative correlation) were demonstrated.
The obtained results support the usage of the CCCI questionnaire in scientific research, such as, for example, among healthcare professionals (nurses, doctors) and students of medical fields (nursing, medicine).
Poland is an EU country that is considered more culturally homogeneous than heterogeneous. According to Eurostat data, the percentage of foreigners in the total population of Poland in 2017 was only 1.7% , although in 2011 it was only 0.1% . Thus, Poland is the EU country with the fewest foreigners in relation to the general population. However, one can highlight quite large changes in this area which have been taking place for several years. For instance, recent years have been characterized by a large increase in the number of foreigners coming to Poland. This group includes both economic migrants (mainly from Ukraine), refugees, tourists and other long-term and short-term visitors. The latter groups are mostly overseas students undertaking education at universities in Poland. While in 2005 there were around 10,000 overseas students in Poland, in 2017 that group had increased to over 72,000 . Therefore, it can be reasonably expected that the number of migrants in Poland will rise in the near future.
The Jagiellonian Research Ethics Committee approved this study. Written consent for participation was obtained prior to data collection. The privacy of participants was protected as follows: (1) all the information provided by each participant was automatically coded by a number that does not identify any individual; (2) the responses participants provided were collected, coded (turned into numbers) and combined with other participants’ responses (not separately) and because the data were represented as a set of numbers and any identifying information was removed from all non-numerical data, it is impossible for anyone to identify any individual; (3) if an individual chose to stop participating in a study, any data already collected as part of her/his participation was removed from the study records; (4) no participants’ responses will be made public; (5) no-one apart from the authors of the present paper has access to the raw paper questionnaires.
The aim of Study 2 was to further investigate the psychometric properties of the Cross-cultural Competence Inventory. While in Study 1 we only examined the internal consistency, factorial structure and theoretical validity of CCCI, in Study 2 we additionally examined the test-retest reliability, theoretical validity, criterion validity and convergent validity.
The basis of the Polish adaptation was the American version of the Cross-Cultural Competence Inventory (CCCI), by Thornson , Thornson & Ross . The psychometric characteristics of the original questionnaire were satisfactory. For this reason, we translated the CCCI into Polish.