Date Published: January 25, 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Marialaura Di Tella, Ada Ghiggia, Silvia Testa, Lorys Castelli, Mauro Adenzato, Cosimo Urgesi.
The Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III (FPQ-III) is a self-report instrument developed to assess fear of different stimuli usually causing pain. The present study aimed to construct an Italian version of the FPQ-III and examine its psychometric properties in a heterogeneous sample of Italian healthy individuals.
The questionnaire was translated following the forward-backward method and completed by 511 Italian adults who met the inclusion criteria. Within 2 months of the first assessment, a subgroup of participants (n = 164) was re-tested. The factorial structure of the FPQ-III was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). To better comprehend the FPQ-III’s factorial structure, a CFA was also performed for each of the two reduced versions of the FPQ-III, namely the FPQ-Short Form and the FPQ-9. Divergent validity, test-retest reliability, and gender/age measurement invariance were also evaluated.
The results of the CFA revealed that the original three-factor model poorly fitted the data, but it became satisfactory after allowing correlated error terms. Concerning divergent validity, correlations between FPQ-III scores and pain intensity, depression, and anxiety were found to be positive but weak in magnitude (< .20). FPQ-III subscales and total scores showed good internal consistency and time reliability. Finally, scalar invariance was only partially obtained, whereas all the other types of invariance were fully respected both for gender and age. The current findings indicate that the Italian version of the FPQ-III provides valid and reliable scores for the assessment of fear of pain in the Italian population.
Fear of pain is considered as a relevant psychological factor in the development and maintenance of chronic pain and pain-related disability [1,2]. Individuals with a high fear of pain may present maladaptive responses to painful stimuli, which often involve situational avoidance .
Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the Italian sample are presented in Table 1.
The present study aimed to construct an Italian version of the FPQ-III and examine its psychometric properties in a heterogeneous sample of Italian adults. Specifically, the suggested three-factor structure, divergent validity and test-retest reliability were assessed. In addition, gender and age measurement invariance was also evaluated.