Research Article: The Mechanism of the Interfacial Charge and Mass Transfer during Intercalation of Alkali Metal Cations

Date Published: September 28, 2016

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Author(s): Edgar Ventosa, Bianca Paulitsch, Philipp Marzak, Jeongsik Yun, Florian Schiegg, Thomas Quast, Aliaksandr S. Bandarenka.


Intercalation of alkali metal cations, like Li+ or Na+, follows the same three‐stage mechanism of the interfacial charge and mass transfer irrespective of the nature of the electrolyte, electrolyte composition or electrode material.

Partial Text

Electrochemical Measurements in Aqueous Media: Electrochemical experiments in aqueous media were carried out in different glass cells using a three‐electrode configuration, consisting of the PBA working electrodes, a platinum wire as a counter electrode and an Ag/AgCl (SSC, sat.) reference electrode, to which all the electrode potentials for the aqueous systems were referred. As the substrates for the PBA thin film working electrodes, either a sputtered gold on glass arrandee, an Au electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) electrode (SRS, Stanford, USA) or an Au(111) single crystal (Mateck, Jülich, Germany; polished down to 30 nm) were employed. The PBA thin films were electrochemically deposited from aqueous solutions and characterized as described in Supporting Information, Section 1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed as described in detail elsewhere9 (see Section 1 in the Supporting Information, for details). The impedance data were analyzed using home‐made software.23, 24