Date Published: March 12, 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Author(s): Julie R. Harris, Caitlin M. Worrell, Stephanie M. Davis, Kennedy Odero, Ondari D. Mogeni, Michael S. Deming, Aden Mohammed, Joel M. Montgomery, Sammy M. Njenga, LeAnne M. Fox, David G. Addiss, Zvi Bentwich. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003590
Abstract: BackgroundPrograms for control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are increasingly evaluating national mass drug administration (MDA) interventions. However, “unprogrammed deworming” (receipt of deworming drugs outside of nationally-run STH control programs) occurs frequently. Failure to account for these activities may compromise evaluations of MDA effectiveness.MethodsWe used a cross-sectional study design to evaluate STH infection and unprogrammed deworming among infants (aged 6–11 months), preschool-aged children (PSAC, aged 1–4 years), and school-aged children (SAC, aged 5–14 years) in Kibera, Kenya, an informal settlement not currently receiving nationally-run MDA for STH. STH infection was assessed by triplicate Kato-Katz. We asked heads of households with randomly-selected children about past-year receipt and source(s) of deworming drugs. Local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and school staff participating in school-based deworming were interviewed to collect information on drug coverage.ResultsOf 679 children (18 infants, 184 PSAC, and 477 SAC) evaluated, 377 (55%) reported receiving at least one unprogrammed deworming treatment during the past year. PSAC primarily received treatments from chemists (48.3%) or healthcare centers (37.7%); SAC most commonly received treatments at school (55.0%). Four NGOs reported past-year deworming activities at 47 of >150 schools attended by children in our study area. Past-year deworming was negatively associated with any-STH infection (34.8% vs 45.4%, p = 0.005). SAC whose most recent deworming medication was sourced from a chemist were more often infected with Trichuris (38.0%) than those who received their most recent treatment from a health center (17.3%) or school (23.1%) (p = 0.05).ConclusionUnprogrammed deworming was received by more than half of children in our study area, from multiple sources. Both individual-level treatment and unprogrammed preventive chemotherapy may serve an important public health function, particularly in the absence of programmed deworming; however, they may also lead to an overestimation of programmed MDA effectiveness. A standardized, validated tool is needed to assess unprogrammed deworming.
Partial Text: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect approximately 2 billion persons worldwide , with school-aged children generally having the highest-intensity infections and highest prevalence of infection [2–6]. Improper disposal of human feces contaminated with helminth eggs exposes humans to infection following ingestion of eggs (Trichuris trichura, or whipworm, and Ascaris lumbricoides, or roundworm) or skin contact with larvae that hatch from eggs (Ancystoloma duodenale and Necator americanus, or hookworm). A wide array of physical effects have been attributed to intestinal STH infections, including anemia (primarily from hookworm infection) [7–9], Vitamin A deficiency , decreased physical fitness , decreased cognitive function [12, 13], decreased growth [12, 14–16], and intestinal obstruction . Morbidity is directly related to infection intensity .
This study was conducted in two villages of Kibera, Kenya, during April—June 2012 as part of a larger cross-sectional evaluation of STH infection and nutritional status in children enrolled in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) International Emerging Infections Program (IEIP)/Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) surveillance platform. Details of this study are provided elsewhere . In brief, IEIP enrolls all adults and children with head-of-household consent who have been living in all households in the two-village study area continuously for at least four months. Among households in the IEIP participant registry, approximately 25% were designated as potential sources for enrollment of preschool-aged children (PSAC) (aged 12–59 months) and infants (aged 6–11 months). The other 75% of households were designated as potential sources for enrollment of school-aged children (SAC) (aged 5–14 years); this ensured that two children were not selected from the same household. Households were selected with probability proportional to size from each target group, and one child was chosen randomly from each selected household. Up to three stools were collected from all selected children and tested by Kato-Katz analysis as described previously . Field workers visited households and, using a visual recall aid showing the locally-available deworming medicines, asked parents about whether or not their SAC or PSAC had been dewormed in the past year, and the source of their deworming medication the last time they were treated in the past year. In addition, parents provided information on the school attended by the child. Schools were defined as ‘public’ (under the purview of the Ministry of Education), ‘private’ (privately-owned and operated, following public curricula), or ‘informal’ (not under the purview of the Ministry of Education and with independent curricula).
Unprogrammed deworming, defined as treatment with deworming drugs outside the context of a nationally-administered STH program, is increasingly recognized in many areas that are endemic for STH infections. Our data indicate that more than half of all preschool- and school-aged children in two villages of the informal settlement of Kibera, Kenya received unprogrammed deworming treatments during 2012. These treatments were obtained from a wide variety of sources, which differed by age group: while school-aged children most often obtained treatments in school, frequently through the efforts of NGOs, preschool-aged children more often received treatments from independent suppliers, such as clinics and chemist shops. The median time since last deworming was three months, suggesting that children may be treated several times each year. Because our survey questions were designed to identify only the most recent source of deworming medication, these data likely underestimate the true frequency of unprogrammed deworming events.