Research Article: Water deficit enhances the transmission of plant viruses by insect vectors

Date Published: May 3, 2017

Publisher: Public Library of Science

Author(s): Manuella van Munster, Michel Yvon, Denis Vile, Beatriz Dader, Alberto Fereres, Stéphane Blanc, Mikhail M. Pooggin.

http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174398

Abstract

Drought is a major threat to crop production worldwide and is accentuated by global warming. Plant responses to this abiotic stress involve physiological changes overlapping, at least partially, the defense pathways elicited both by viruses and their herbivore vectors. Recently, a number of theoretical and empirical studies anticipated the influence of climate changes on vector-borne viruses of plants and animals, mainly addressing the effects on the virus itself or on the vector population dynamics, and inferring possible consequences on virus transmission. Here, we directly assess the effect of a severe water deficit on the efficiency of aphid-transmission of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). For both viruses, our results demonstrate that the rate of vector-transmission is significantly increased from water-deprived source plants: CaMV transmission reproducibly increased by 34% and that of TuMV by 100%. In both cases, the enhanced transmission rate could not be explained by a higher virus accumulation, suggesting a more complex drought-induced process that remains to be elucidated. The evidence that infected plants subjected to drought are much better virus sources for insect vectors may have extensive consequences for viral epidemiology, and should be investigated in a wide range of plant-virus-vector systems.

Partial Text

Drought is a major limiting abiotic stress threatening plant species communities and crop production [1], and global warming increases both its frequency and severity [2, 3]. While improving tolerance to drought in crop plants appears as a necessity [4], another challenge is to predict and anticipate how its increased intensity/frequency will interfere with other stresses, and in particular biotic stresses.

Insect-vectored plant viruses are near-ubiquitous components of natural and agricultural ecosystems and often reach a very high incidence both in crops and in more complex plant communities [32, 33]. It is anticipated that abiotic stresses can impact multiple steps of the intricate plant-virus-vector interaction and so modify the transmission rates in many different ways [10, 34]. Here we studied the « direct » effect of water deprivation, a major stress encountered by plants in natural field conditions, on virus transmission using 2 phylogenetically unrelated plant viruses. We focused on a simple experimental design where the parameter tested is the impact of drought on infected plants regarding their capacity to act as a virus source for aphid vectors. Neither the aphids nor the receptor test plants were submitted to any particular stress, hence specifically informing on the efficacy of virus acquisition depending on water availability or deficiency to infected plants. In these conditions, we showed that a severe water deficit applied to CaMV- or TuMV-infected plants dramatically enhanced transmission by around 34% and 100%, respectively.

 

Source:

http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174398

 

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