Ribosomes: Factories of Proteins


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Source: https://phys.org/news/2015-08-biologists-ribosomes-untranslated-region-messenger.html

Ribosomes: Factories of Proteins (Campbell Biology)

Ribosomes, which are complexes made of ribosomal RNAs and proteins, are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis. (Note that ribosomes are not membrane-bounded and thus are not considered organelles.) Cells that have high rates of protein synthesis have particularly large numbers of ribosomes as well as prominent nucleoli, which makes sense, given the role of nucleoli in ribosome assembly. For example, a human pancreas cell, which makes many digestive enzymes, has a few million ribosomes.

Ribosomes build proteins in two cytoplasmic locales. At any given time, free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol, while bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope. Bound and free ribosomes are structurally identical, and ribosomes can play either role at different times. Most of the proteins made on free ribosomes function within the cytosol; examples are enzymes that catalyze the first steps of sugar breakdown. Bound ribosomes generally make proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes, for packaging within certain organelles such as lysosomes, or for export from the cell (secretion). Cells that specialize in protein secretion—for instance, the cells of the pancreas that secrete digestive enzymes—frequently have a high proportion of bound ribosomes.


Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology. Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/series/Campbell-Biology-Series/2244849.html


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